Elizaveta Shnaider, Baymanov Ruslan Alma Kazhmuratova, Farida Seytgalieva. School-gymnasium No. 2 of Gafu Kairbekov, Astana. Gulnar Rakhmetulina.


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ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫЌ
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ВЕСТНИК
КАЗАХСТАНА

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ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ ВЕСТНИК КАЗАХСТАНА
СВИДЕТЕЛЬСТВО
о постановке на учет средства массовой информации
№9076-Ж
выдано Министерством культуры, информации и спорта
Республики Казахстан
25.05 2008 года
РЕДАКЦИОННАЯ КОЛЛЕГИЯ
Главный редактор
А. Нухулы, доктор химических наук, профессор
Зам. главного редактора
А.С. Ильясова, кандидат исторических наук
Ответственный секретарь
Д.Ж. Сакенов, кандидат пед. наук, профессор (ПГПИ)
Члены редакционной коллегии
А.К. Кусаинов, доктор пед. наук, профессор, лауреат Государственной премии РК, президент
Академии педагогических наук Казахстана
Д. Камзабекулы, доктор филологических наук, профессор (ЕНУ им. Л.Н. Гумилева)
Р.К. Толеубаева, доктор педагогических наук, профессор (КазНПУ им. Абая)
Г.К. Ахметова, доктор пед. наук, профессор, председатель правления АО «НЦПС Өрлеу»
К.К. Жампеисова, доктор пед. наук, профессор (КазНПУ им. Абая)
В.В. Егоров, доктор пед. наук, профессор (КарГТУ)
С.К. Бердыбаева, доктор пс. наук, профессор (КазНУ им. аль-Фараби)
Н.С. Сафаев, доктор пс. наук, профессор (ТГУ им. Низами, г. Ташкент)
А.А. Петрусевич, доктор пед. наук, профессор (ОмГПУ, г. Омск)
Н.В. Чекалёва, доктор пед. наук, профессор (ОмГПУ, г. Омск)
А.Ф. Филатова, доктор пс. наук, профессор (ОмГПУ, г. Омск)
А.К. Нургалиева, доктор пед. наук (ПГПИ)
Г.Е. Отепова, доктор ист. наук (ПГПИ)
Д.Ж. Сакенов, кандидат пед. наук, профессор (ПГПИ)
С.Н. Сутжанов, доктор филол. наук (ПГПИ)
Ж.А. Усин, доктор пед. наук, профессор (ПГПИ)
Технический секретарь
Г.С. Салменова
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А.М. Закал,
Д.Ж. Сакенов, Ф. Сейтғалиева
Процесс формирования элементарных матема-
тических представлений ....................................4
Г.С. Байғұлова
Тəжірибені жаңарту – заман талабы ...............39
A.M. Закал,
Г.Ж. Рахметулина, К. Омарова
Оқушының зерттеушілік жəне іскерлік
қабілеттерін арттыру .........................................46
МАЗМҰНЫ СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Г.К. Кудушева,
Е.М. Раклова, К. Омарова
Активизация познавательной деятельности
детей посредством дидактической игры .........51
Г.М. Мажитова
Оқушыларға оқуда кездесетін
қиыншылықтарды жоюға көмектесу ...............57
Д.Ж. Сакенов
Гений М.Ш. Алинова ........................................64
АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ ВЫСШЕЙ ШКОЛЫ
ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТАЛЬНЫЙ РАЗДЕЛ СТАТЕЙ
ПО ТРЕБОВАНИЯМ БАЗЫ ЦИТИРОВАНИЯ SCOPUS
A.E. Karimova, A.S. Amanova,
A.M. Sadykova, N.E. Kuzembaev,
A.T. Makisheva, G.Zh. Kurmangazina,
Janat Sakenov, M.K. Kunanbayev
Development of professional competence in dual-
specialty students (On an example of «History,
Religious Studies» specialty) ...............................68
A.M. Zakal, Janat Sakenov,
E. Shnaider, R. Baymanov,
A. Kazhmuratova, F. Seytgalieva,
G. Rakhmetulina
The process of preparing future teachers to use
multimedia learning .............................................78
N.S. Safayev, Janat Sakenov,
A. Zhantemirova
Elective disciplines as means of formation
of professional competence .................................87
A.M. Zakal, Janat Sakenov,
E. Shnaider, F. Zhantemirova
About information competence ............................98
A.F. Filatova, Janat Sakenov
Formation of professional competence
of students ..........................................................109
A.A. Petrusevich, Janat Sakenov,
E. Shnaider, F. Zhantemirova,
A. Zhantemirova
Ethnic traditions as means of formation
of moral values ..................................................122
A.M. Zakal, Janat Sakenov
Formation of legal competence of students .......131
K. Omarova, Janat Sakenov
Formation of professional competence of Stu-
dents College (Role of elective disciplines) ......143
K. Omarova,
Janat Sakenov. A.M. Zakal
Methodical conditions of formation professional
competences at Students College .......................155
Авторларға арналған ереже ............................168
Правила для авторов ........................................170
Авторларға арналған жаңа ереже
(Scopus талабы бойынша)
Новые правила для авторов
(по требованиям Scopus) .................................172
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
4
АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ
ВЫСШЕЙ ШКОЛЫ
УДК 372.854
ПРОЦЕСС ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ
ЭЛЕМЕНТАРНЫХ МАТЕМАТИЧЕСКИХ ПРЕДСТАВЛЕНИЙ
А.М. Закал
профессор Гамбургского университета, г. Гамбург, Германия
Д.Ж. Сакенов
профессор Павлодарского государственного педагогического института,
г. Павлодар, Казахстан
Ф. Сейтғалиева
учитель школы-гимназии №2 им. Гафу Кайырбекова,
г. Астана, Казахстан
Аннотация
В статье дана характеристика содержания понятия «процесс формирования эле-
ментарных математических представлений». Исследована эффективность процесса
формирования элементарных математических представлений у дошкольников. Разрабо-
тан комплекс средств, способствующих формированию элементарных математических
представлений у дошкольников.
Ключевые слова: процесс, формирование, элементарные математические пред-
ставления.
Понятие «формирование элементарных математических представлений»
включает взаимосвязанные и взаимообусловленные действия, представления о
пространстве, форме, величине, времени, количестве, их свойствах и отношениях,
которые необходимы для формирования в процессе овладения и выполнения тех
видов деятельности, для которых они необходимы. По словам Л.С. Выготского, на-
учные понятия не усваиваются и не заучиваются ребенком, не берутся памятью, а
возникают и складываются с помощью величайшего напряжения всей активности
его собственной мысли [1]. Основные логические структуры мышления формиру-
ются в возрасте от 5 до 11 лет. При этом именно в математике заложены возмож-
ности для развития мышления детей, формирования и развития его логических
структур. Результатом обучения математике являются не только знания, но и опре-
деленный стиль мышления. Дети дошкольного возраста спонтанно проявляют ин-
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терес к математическим категориям: количество, форма, время, пространство, ко-
торые помогают им лучше ориентироваться в вещах и ситуациях, упорядочивать и
связывать их друг с другом, способствуют формированию понятий. Элементарные
математические представления складываются у детей рано, т.к. речь изобилует ма-
тематическими понятиями: круг, шар, квадрат, угол, прямая, кривая и т.д. уже к че-
тырем годам у дошкольников есть некоторый «багаж» элементарных математиче-
ских представлений, который необходимо обобщить и систематизировать.
У ребенка должны быть воспитаны устойчивый интерес к знаниям, уме-
ние пользоваться ими и стремление самостоятельно их приобретать. Под мате-
матическим развитием дошкольников понимаются качественные изменения по-
знавательной деятельности ребенка, которые происходят в результате формиро-
вания элементарных математических представлений, связанных с ними логиче-
ских операций. Математическое развитие – значимый компонент формирования
«картины мира» ребенка. Одна из важных задач воспитателей и родителей –
развить у ребенка интерес к математике в дошкольном возрасте. Приобщение к
этому предмету в игровой и занимательной форме помогает ребенку в дальней-
шем быстрее и легче усваивать школьную программу [2; 3; 4]. Особую остроту
этой проблемы подчеркивал Л.С. Выготский, характеризуя возникающий в до-
школьном возрасте тип обучения как промежуточный между спонтанным, свой-
ственным ребенку раннего возраста, и реактивным, присущим школьному возра-
сту [1]. Ребенок в дошкольном возрасте уже может обучаться по программе, зада-
ваемой взрослым, однако лишь в силу того, как программа взрослых становит-
ся его собственной программой, сливается с естественным ходом развития ре-
бенка. Этот тип обучения Л.С. Выготский называл спонтанно-реактивным. И ес-
ли для воспитанника цель – в самой игре, то для взрослого, организующего игру,
есть и другая цель – развитие детей, усвоение ими определенных знаний, форми-
рование умений, выработка тех или иных качеств личности. Характер этого про-
тиворечия и определяет воспитательную ценность игры: если достижение дидак-
тической цели будет осуществимо в игре как деятельности, заключающей цель
в самой себе, то воспитательная ее ценность будет более значимой. По словам
Л.С. Выготского, научные понятия не усваиваются и не заучиваются ребенком, не
берутся памятью, а возникают и складываются с помощью величайшего напря-
жения всей активности его собственной мысли [1]. При этом математика может и
должна играть особую роль в гуманизации образования, в его ориентации на вос-
питание и развитие детской личности. Особая роль математики – в умственном
воспитании, в развитии интеллекта. Знания необходимы ребенку не ради знания,
а как важная составляющая личности, включающая умственное, нравственное,
эмоциональное (эстетическое) и физическое воспитание. Обучению дошкольников
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основам математики отводится важное место. Это вызвано целым рядом причин:
началом школьного обучения с шести лет, обилием информации, получаемой ре-
бенком, повышенное внимание к компьютеризации, желанием сделать процесс об-
учения более интенсивным. Крутецкий В.А. выделил девять компонентов матема-
тических способностей [1; 5]:
1) способность к формализации математического материала, к отделению
формы от содержания абстрагированного, от конкретных количественных отно-
шений и пространственных форм и оперированию формальными структурами,
структурами отношений и связей;
2) способность обобщать математический материал, вычленять главное, от-
влекаясь от несущественного, видеть общее во внешне разном;
3) способность к последовательному, правильно расчлененному логическому
рассуждению, связанному с потребностью в доказательстве, обосновании, выво-
дах;
4) способность сокращать процесс рассуждения, мыслить развернутыми
структурами, мыслить свернутыми структурами;
5) способность сокращать процесс рассуждения, мыслить развернутыми
структурами, мыслить свернутыми структурами;
6) способность к обратимости мыслительного процесса (к переходу с прямо-
го на обратный ход мысли);
7) гибкость мышления, способность к переключению от одной умственной
операции к другой. Свобода от сковывающего влияния шаблонов и трафаретов;
8) математическая память – память на обобщенные формализованные струк-
туры, логические схемы;
9) способность к пространственным представлениям.
До настоящего времени в дошкольных образовательных программах речь не
шла о свойствах времени, которые могут быть усвоены детьми, а постижение дан-
ного феномена осуществлялось через практическую деятельность самого ребенка.
В восприятии времени участвуют три перцептивных действия: оценка, отмерива-
ние и воспроизведение временного интервала:
– при оценке человек словесно определяет продемонстрированный ему мате-
риал (например, 1 минута);
– при отмеривании сам оценивает названный ему материал;
– при воспроизведении повторяет продемонстрированный ему интервал.
Учение А.Н. Леонтьева о значениях времени и пространства как знаков жиз-
недеятельности человека, определяющих характер его отношений с миром, пока-
зывает, что объективный мир, который является четырехмерным (трехмерное про-
странство и время), имеет еще одно, пятое квазиизмерение в отношении к челове-
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ку. Предметный мир открывается человеку как система значений. Значения высту-
пают для каждого отдельного индивида в двух ипостасях: как «вне – его – суще-
ствующее» и как то, что входит в его образ мира. Содержание образования в кон-
тексте культуры содержит то значение, о котором говорил А.Н. Леонтьев и С.Л. Ру-
бинштейн, с нашей точки зрения, и является ценностью, знаком, эталоном, кото-
рые определяют поведение человека, регулируют отношения с миром и становят-
ся ориентирами в жизни людей. Именно они существуют вне времени и вне про-
странства. Однако процесс познания этих ценностных смыслов, создающих у ре-
бенка образ мира, осуществляется в детстве и обеспечивает ему возможность су-
ществования в этом мире. А.Н. Леонтьев говорил о том, что мир, взятый в отноше-
нии к человеку, является модальным, то есть субъективным и обнаруживается он в
специфических эффектах, реципирующих органов субъекта – зрительных, слухо-
вых, тактильных. Ребенок познает мир благодаря индивидуальным способам дей-
ствий, которыми он заполняет пространство между собой и объектом (субъектом),
который он хочет постичь.
Постижение смысла произведений, установление логической связи человек –
произведение искусств обеспечивается благодаря связности и единству данного
взаимодействия в определенном пространственно-временном отрезке. Именно в
этом пространственно-временном отрезке решающее значение приобретает актив-
ное использование субъектом предметов – орудий и собственных индивидуальных
действий, обеспечивающих единство «психики и мозга». Это создает ситуацию
взаимоперехода ценностных и личностных смыслов, психического и художествен-
ного, объектного и субъектного, в которой пространство и время «оживают» в ре-
альных художественных знаках, символах, эмоциях, смыслах и приобретают лич-
ностную значимость для человека. Детям уже в дошкольном возрасте жизненно
необходимо научиться самим ориентироваться во времени: определять, изменять
время (правильно обозначая в речь), чувствовать его длительность (чтобы регули-
ровать и планировать деятельность во времени), менять темп и ритм своих дей-
ствий в зависимости от наличия времени. По мнению Д.Б. Эльконина, для позна-
ния разных сторон времени нужна функция различных корковых структур мозга.
Наименьшей точностью характеризуется словесная оценка интервала времени. Са-
мое же точное восприятие времени наблюдается при воспроизведении временного
интервала. Это обусловлено тем, что при оценке и отмеривании человек внутрен-
не считает, соотносит интервал с эталоном, хранящимся в памяти, а при воспроиз-
ведении, кроме внутреннего сличения, имеется возможность сопоставлять с про-
демонстрированным материалом. Для приобретения опыта подчинения времени
своей деятельности и действиям ребенку необходимо с раннего детства научиться
ценить время, понимать его необратимость и мгновенность, подчинять свои дей-
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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ствия времени и время своим целям [1; 6; 7]. В работах А.А. Люблинской отмеча-
лось, что дети дошкольного возраста испытывают трудности в восприятии време-
ни и у них относительно поздно развиваются временные представления, как тягу-
честь, текучесть, необратимость (невозможность вернуть прошедшее и поменять
местами настоящее и будущее), периодичность, одномерность [1; 6; 7].
Восприятие детьми этих особенностей весьма затруднено из-за отсутствия
наглядных форм, не подлежит чувственному созерцанию, поэтому воспринимает-
ся опосредованно, через движение или какую-то деятельность, связанную с опре-
делением времени или через чередование каких-то постоянных явлений. У до-
школьников образуется ясное для конкретных событий представление о прошед-
шем, настоящем и будущем. Что же касается представлений о более длительных
промежутках времени, то даже у старших детей они не точны. Тем более, весьма
смутные их представления о далеком прошлом. Однако интерес к прошедшему у
детей имеется, но по-разному локализуется во времени у разных детей, что в зна-
чительной мере зависит от того, уделяют ли взрослые внимание ознакомлению де-
тей с временными отношениями, ведут ли с ними беседы о локализации времени
различных известных ребенку событий.
Дети шести-семи лет уже правильно пользуются временными наречиями, но
не все временные категории осознаются одновременно и правильно отображаются
в речи детей. Лучше усваиваются наречия, обозначающие скорость и локализацию
событий во времени, хуже наречия, выражающие длительность и последователь-
ность. Это развитие протекает особенно интенсивно между шестью и семью года-
ми жизни ребенка, если этим процессом управлять. Однако такая дифференциров-
ка временных отношений в дошкольном возрасте формируется еще медленно и в
значительной степени зависит от общего умственного и речевого развития детей.
Чувство времени имеет большое значение: оно является способом самосто-
ятельного определения необходимого времени на то или иное занятие, игру, ре-
шение какой-то практической задачи в повседневной жизни. В разных видах дея-
тельности чувство времени выступает то как чувство темпа, то как чувство рит-
ма, то как чувство скорости. Для нашего исследования это положение является
весьма значимым, так как, взяв основным педагогическим средством формирова-
ния представлений о времени и пространстве искусство, мы хотим отметить тот
факт, что именно оно создается благодаря таким средствам выразительности, как
темп, ритм, композиция, линия и т.п. Все это, с нашей точки зрения, и обеспечи-
вает ребенку усвоение таких свойств времени и пространства, как протяженность,
текучесть, длительность и т.п. В формировании этого чувства определенную роль
играет накопленный опыт дифференцировки времени на основе деятельности мно-
гих анализаторов. Так, чувство времени наряду с чувственным восприятием вклю-
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чает и логические компоненты: знание мер времени. Таким образом, чувство вре-
мени опирается на взаимодействие первой и второй сигнальных систем. Чувство
времени может находиться на разных ступенях развития. В раннем возрасте оно
формируется на основе богатого чувственного опыта без опоры на знания этало-
нов времени. Младенец кричит, так как настало время кормления. Ребенок спит, он
спокойно лежит, улыбается. У него еще нет обобщения чувства времени, оно свя-
зано только с той конкретной деятельностью, в которой оно сформировалось, для
старших детей это игры и специальные упражнения на время, то есть чувство вре-
мени имеет сравнительно узкую сферу применения. Это чувство развивается и со-
вершенствуется в практической деятельности человека. Итак, с точки зрения пси-
хологической науки, восприятие времени, с одной стороны, опирается на чувстви-
тельную основу, а с другой – на освоение общепринятых эталонов оценки време-
ни. Чувственному восприятию времени способствуют все основные процессы на-
шей органической жизни, обладающие строгой периодичностью (ритм, дыхание,
биение сердца). Самое общее понимание пространства и времени опирается на наш
непосредственный эмпирический опыт. Понятие пространства возникает как из
характеристики отдельного взятого тела, всегда имеющего протяженность, так и
из факта вне положенности множества существующих объектов, имеющих разное
пространственное положение. Таким образом, пространство – форма бытия мате-
рии, характеризуемая такими свойствами, как протяженность, структурность, со-
существование и взаимодействие. Понятие времени также возникает как из срав-
нения различных состояний одного и того же объекта, который в результате дли-
тельности своего существования неизбежно меняет свои свойства, так и из факта
сменяющейся последовательности разных объектов в одном и том же месте. Вре-
мя, таким образом, тоже есть форма бытия материи, характеризуемая такими свой-
ствами изменения и развития систем, как длительность, последовательность сме-
ны состояний. Понятия пространства и времени соотносительны: в понятии про-
странства отражается координация различных, неположенных друг другу объек-
тов в один и тот же момент времени, а в понятии времени отражается координация
сменяющих друг друга объектов в одном и том же месте пространства.
Я.А. Коменский в своей Великой дидактике указывал, что в первые 6 лет
жизни ребенка должна быть заложена основа для многих последующих занятий.
Определяя содержание этой основы, Я.А. Коменский отметил, что в период так на-
зываемой Материнской школы с ребенком необходимо пройти первые шаги хро-
нологии. Он указывал, что обучение дошкольников различению времени долж-
но проводиться в виде бесед родителей с детьми, в которых взрослые в понятной
форме объясняют, показывают и называют явления окружающего мира. И.Г. Пе-
сталоцци указывал, как и Я.А. Коменский, на такой же объем временных знаний
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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для дошкольников; считал усвоение ребенком временных отношений и развитие
на этой основе его речи одним из важнейших средств познания и элементарного
обучения [1; 8].
По мнению Ф. Фребеля, первые временные представления ребенок должен
усвоить в процессе деятельности, в играх и занятиях с дидактическим материа-
лом. Еще более узкий объем знаний указывает М. Монтесори, предлагая учить де-
тей понимать слова: «до, после, чаще, реже», правильно употреблять «сегодня, зав-
тра, вчера». Предлагает знакомить с метром, сантиметром, а вот необходимость
соизмерения временных величин детьми дошкольного возраста отрицала. Мы ви-
дим, что в зарубежной педагогике авторы придерживались прагматического под-
хода к освоению детьми пространственно-временных отношений – через действия
с предметами [1; 9].
К.Д. Ушинский предлагает знакомить детей 7 года жизни с понятиями: сут-
ки, неделя, месяц, год, а также тысячелетие и понятиями, определяющими возраст
людей: младенец, дитя, отрок, юноша, девушка, мужчина, женщина, старик, ста-
руха. Он указывал на важную роль чувственного опыта ребенка и степень овладе-
ния им речью [1; 9].
Разработанная А.М. Леушиной в 40-е годы концепция формирования ко-
личественных представлений была существенно дополнена в 60-е и 70-е годы
за счет научно-теоретической и методической разработки проблемы развития
пространственно-временных представлений у дошкольников. В дальнейшем под
руководством А.М. Леушиной были разработаны содержание и методы форми-
рования у детей пространственных и временных представлений, обучения изме-
рению объектов, массы тел, обеспечивающие умственное и всестороннее разви-
тие детей. Усвоение дошкольниками содержания абстрактных знаний осуществля-
лось в основном через усвоения практических действий. Хотелось бы отметить,
что содержание математических знаний для дошкольников, в частности, о време-
ни и пространстве, в образовательных программах А.М. Леушиной было представ-
лено достаточно полно и разнообразно. Это пополнило содержание дошкольного
образования и явилось существенным отличием от образовательных программ
за рубежом. Т.Д. Рихтерман также раскрывает основные особенности восприятия
детьми времени, уточняет задачи, предлагает интересные приемы работы. Одна-
ко она предлагает ознакомление с частями суток на наглядной основе – использо-
вание картинок с отражением деятельности детей в различные части суток, затем
– предлагает пейзажные картинки, где дети ориентируются по основным природ-
ным показателям: цвет неба, положение Солнца на небосклоне, степень освещен-
ности дня. Современная система образования широко использует искусство как пе-
дагогически ценное средство развития личности ребенка. Именно искусство, отра-
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жающее художественный образ времени и пространства жизнедеятельности лю-
дей, позволяет ребенку открыть новые культурно-философские грани данных по-
нятий [1; 10].
Познание пространства и времени в культурно-исторической концепции по-
зволяет активизировать процесс развития ребенка и закладывать основы фило-
софско-логического мышления, начиная с дошкольного детства.
Современная программа по математике направлена на развитие и форми-
рование математических представлений и способностей, логического мышле-
ния, умственной активности, смекалки, то есть умения делать простейшие суж-
дения, пользоваться грамматически правильными оборотами речи. В математиче-
ской подготовке, предусмотренной программой, наряду с обучением детей счету,
развитием представлений о количестве и числе в пределах первого десятка, деле-
нию предметов на равные части большое внимание уделяется операциям с нагляд-
ным материалом, проведению измерений с помощью условных мерок, определе-
нию объема жидких и сыпучих тел, развитию глазомера ребят, их представлений
о геометрических фигурах, о времени, формированию понимания пространствен-
ных отношений. На занятиях по математике воспитатель осуществляет не только
образовательные задачи, но и решает воспитательные. Педагог знакомит дошколь-
ников с правилами поведения, воспитывает у них старательность, организован-
ность, привычку к точности, сдержанность, настойчивость, целеустремленность,
активное отношение к собственной деятельности.
Работу по развитию у детей элементарных математических представлений
воспитатель организует на занятиях и вне занятий: утром, днем во время прогулок,
вечером; 2–3 раза в неделю. Педагоги всех возрастных групп должны использо-
вать все виды деятельности для закрепления у ребят математических знаний. На-
пример, в процессе рисования, лепки, конструирования у детей закрепляются зна-
ния о геометрических фигурах, числе и размере предметов, об их пространствен-
ном расположении; пространственные представления, счетные навыки, порядко-
вый счет – на музыкальных и физкультурных занятиях, во время спортивных раз-
влечений. В различных подвижных играх могут быть использованы знания детей
об измерениях условными мерками величин предметов. Для закрепления матема-
тических представлений воспитатели широко используют дидактические игры и
игровые упражнения отдельно для каждой возрастной группы. В летний период
программный материал по математике повторяется и закрепляется на прогулках, в
играх. В основе методики обучения математическим знаниям лежат общедидакти-
ческие принципы: систематичность, последовательность, постепенность, индиви-
дуальный подход. Предлагаемые детям задания последовательно, от занятия к за-
нятию, усложняются, что обеспечивает доступность обучения. При переходе к но-
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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вой теме не следует забывать о повторении пройденного. Повторение материала в
процессе изучения нового не только позволяет углубить знания детей, но и дает
возможность легче сосредоточить внимание на новом. На занятиях по математи-
ке воспитатели используют различные методы (словесный, наглядный, игровой) и
приемы (рассказ, беседа, описание, указание и объяснение, вопросы детям, ответы
детей, образец, показ реальных предметов, картин, дидактические игры и упраж-
нения, подвижные игры). Большое место в работе с детьми всех возрастных групп
занимают методы развивающего обучения. Это и систематизация предлагаемых
им знаний, использование наглядных средств (эталонных образцов, простейших
схематических изображений, предметов-заместителей) для выделения в реальных
предметах и ситуациях различных свойств и отношений, применение общего спо-
соба действия в новых условиях.
Если педагоги сами подбирают наглядный материал, им при этом следует
строго соблюдать требования, вытекающие из задач обучения и особенностей воз-
раста детей. Эти требования следующие:
– достаточное количество предметов, используемых на занятии;
– разнообразие предметов по размерам (большие и маленькие);
– обыгрывание с детьми всех видов наглядности до занятия в разные отрез-
ки времени, с тем, чтобы на занятии их привлекала только математическая сторо-
на, а не игровая (при обыгрывании игрового материала нужно указать ребятам его
назначение);
– динамичность (ребята действуют с предложенным им предметом в соот-
ветствии с заданиями воспитателя, поэтому предмет должен быть прочным, устой-
чивым, чтобы его можно было переставить, перенести с места на место, взять в
руки);
– художественное оформление. Наглядный материал должен привлекать де-
тей эстетически. Красивые пособия вызывают у ребят желание заниматься с ними,
способствуют организованному проведению занятий и хорошему усвоению мате-
риала. Для умственного развития дошкольников большое значение имеют заня-
тия по развитию элементарных математических представлений. На занятиях по
этому разделу программы дети не только занимаются усвоением навыков счета,
решением и составлением простых арифметических задач, но и знакомятся с гео-
метрическими формами, понятием множества, учатся ориентироваться во време-
ни и пространстве. На этих занятиях в значительно большей степени, чем на дру-
гих, интенсивно развивается сообразительность, смекалка, логическое мышление,
способность к абстрагированию, вырабатывается лаконичная и точная речь. «Про-
грамма воспитания и обучения в детском саду» предусматривает преемственную
связь с программой по этому предмету для 1 класса школы. Если ребенок не усво-
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ил какое-либо правило или понятие, то это неизбежно повлечет за собой его отста-
вание на занятиях по математике в школе.
Задача воспитателя детского сада, проводящего занятия по математике, –
включить всех детей в активное и систематическое усвоение программного мате-
риала. Для этого он, прежде всего, должен хорошо знать индивидуальные особен-
ности детей, отношение их к таким занятиям, уровень их математического разви-
тия и степень понимания ими нового материала. Индивидуальный подход в про-
ведении занятий по математике дает возможность не только помочь детям в усво-
ении программного материала, но и развить их интерес к этим занятиям. Обеспе-
чить активное участие всех детей в общей работе, что ведет за собой развитие их
умственных способностей, внимания, предупреждает интеллектуальную пассив-
ность у отдельных ребят, воспитывает настойчивость, целеустремленность и дру-
гие волевые качества. Воспитатель должен заботиться о развитии у детей способ-
ностей к проведению счетных операций, научить их применять полученные ранее
знания, творчески подходить к решению предложенных заданий. Все эти вопросы
он должен решать, учитывая индивидуальные особенности детей, проявляющие-
ся на занятиях по математике.
Обучение и воспитание ребенка – одно из возможных средств управления
им. Образовательные программы для дошкольных учреждений ориентируют пе-
дагогов настойчиво и последовательно учить детей замечать время, соотносить с
временем игры, занятия, повседневной жизни, приучать детей отдавать отчет о
том, что сделано и могло быть сделано в то или другое время. Это вовсе не озна-
чает, что нужно постоянно говорить о времени, контролировать детей. Нужно так
организовать жизнь, чтобы она была содержательна, интересна и полезна для раз-
вития у детей чувства времени. Чувство времени в общем его определении пред-
ставляет способность ориентироваться при выполнении действий на определенное
время без показания специальных приборов и вспомогательных средств. Воспита-
ние чувства времени осуществляется на протяжении всего процесса формирова-
ния представлений о времени и неотделима от него.
Во второй младшей группе работа с детьми трех лет по развитию элементар-
ных математических представлений в основном направлена на развитие представ-
лений о множестве. Ребят учат сравнивать два множества, сопоставлять элементы
одного множества с элементами другого, различать равенство и неравенство групп
предметов, составляющих множество. Программный материал второй младшей
группы ограничен дочисловым периодом обучения. Дети этого возраста учатся со-
ставлять группы из отдельных предметов и выделять предметы по одному: разли-
чать понятия «много» и «один». При сравнении двух количественных групп с по-
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мощью приемов наложения и приложения определять их равенство и неравенство
по числу входящих в них элементов.
Дети учатся составлять группу однородных предметов и выделять из нее
один предмет, правильно отвечать на вопрос «сколько?». Эта задача решается в
основном в игровой и практической деятельности. Существует множество игр, в
которых дети учатся выделять один предмет, составлять группу предметов, овла-
девают терминами «один» и «много». Например: «Медведь и пчелы», «Фонарики»,
«Поезд», «Кот и мыши» и т. п.
Раздел программы «Величина» связан с развитием первоначальных пред-
ставлений у дошкольников о величине предметов контрастных и одинаковых раз-
меров по длине, ширине, высоте, толщине, объему (больше, меньше, одинаковые
по величине). Дети учатся словом определять величину предметов: длинный – ко-
роткий, широкий – узкий, высокий – низкий, толстый – тонкий, больший – мень-
ший.
На каждом занятии обязательно давать детям геометрические фигуры в па-
ре: например, круг и квадрат или квадрат и треугольник, треугольник и круг. Пер-
вые сведения о геометрических фигурах дети получают во время игры. На осно-
ве накопленного на основе занятий опыта детей знакомят с названиями плоскост-
ных геометрических фигур (квадрат, круг, треугольник). Учат выделять, различать
и называть эти фигуры. Важно, чтобы ребята обследовали эти фигуры зрительным
и двигательно-осязательным анализаторами. Дошкольники обводят контур, прово-
дят рукой по поверхностям моделей – таким образом, происходит общее восприя-
тие формы. Для сравнения фигур следует использовать приемы приложения и на-
ложения. Пространственные представления в группе детей четвертого года жиз-
ни целесообразно развивать, используя повседневную жизнь, режимные момен-
ты, дидактические, подвижные игры, утреннюю гимнастику, музыкальные и физ-
культурные занятия. К концу учебного года дети должны научиться четко разли-
чать пространственные направления от себя: вперед, назад (сзади), направо, спра-
ва, налево, слева, вниз, снизу, а также части своего тела, их названия. Особое зна-
чение приобретает различение правой и левой рук, правой и левой частей своего
тела. В разделе «Ориентировка во времени» в основном предусматривается обуче-
ние детей умению различать части суток и называть их: утро, вечер, день и ночь.
Этими понятиями ребята овладевают в повседневной жизни, при проведении ре-
жимных моментов.
Во второй младшей группе начинают проводить специальную работу по
формированию элементарных математических представлений. От того, насколь-
ко успешно будет организовано первое восприятие количественных отношений и
пространственных форм реальных предметов, зависит дальнейшее математиче-
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ское развитие детей. Современная математика при обосновании таких важнейших
понятий, как «число», «геометрическая фигура» и т. д., опирается на теорию мно-
жеств, в связи с чем формирование понятий в школьном курсе математики проис-
ходит на теоретико-множественной основе. Выполнение детьми дошкольного воз-
раста различных операций с предметными множествами позволяет в дальнейшем
развить у малышей понимание количественных отношений и сформировать по-
нятие о натуральном числе. Умение выделять качественные признаки предметов
и объединять предметы в группу на основе одного общего для всех их признака –
важное условие перехода от качественных наблюдений к количественным. Работу
с детьми начинают с заданий на подбор и объединение предметов в группы по об-
щему признаку. Пользуясь приемами наложения или приложения, дети устанавли-
вают наличие или отсутствие взаимнооднозначного соответствия между элемен-
тами групп предметов (множеств).
В современном обучении математике в основе формирования понятия о нату-
ральном числе лежит установление взаимнооднозначного соответствия между эле-
ментами сравниваемых групп предметов. Детей не учат считать, но, организуя раз-
нообразные действия с предметами, подводят к усвоению счета, создают возмож-
ности для формирования понятия о натуральном числе.
Программа средней группы направлена на дальнейшее формирование мате-
матических представлений у детей. Она включает обучение счету до 5 на срав-
нении двух множеств, выраженных смежными числами. Важной задачей в этом
разделе остается умение устанавливать равенство и неравенство групп предме-
тов, когда предметы находятся на различном расстоянии друг от друга, когда они
различны по величине и т. д. Решение этой задачи подводит детей к пониманию
абстрактного числа. Группировка предметов по признакам вырабатывает у детей
умение сравнивать, осуществлять логические операции классификации. В процес-
се разнообразных практических действий с совокупностями дети усваивают и ис-
пользуют в речи простые слова и выражения, обозначающие уровень количествен-
ных представлений: много, один, по одному, ни одного, совсем нет, мало, такой
же, одинаковый, столько же, поровну; столько, сколько; больше, чем; меньше, чем;
каждый из.., все, всех. Ребята средней группы должны научиться называть числи-
тельные по порядку, соотносить каждое числительное только с одним предметом.
В конце счета подводить итог его круговым движением и именовать названием пе-
ресчитанных предметов (например, «одна, две, три. Всего три куклы»). При подве-
дении итога счета всегда обращать внимание на то, чтобы дети всегда первым на-
зывали число, а потом – предмет. Детей учат отличать процесс счета от итога сче-
та, считать правой рукой слева направо, в процессе счета называть только числи-
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тельные, правильно согласовывать числительные с существительными в роде, чис-
ле, падеже, давать развернутый ответ.
Одновременно с обучением счету формируется и понятие о каждом новом
числе путем добавления единицы. В течение всего учебного года повторяется ко-
личественный счет до 5. При обучении счету на каждом занятии следует уделить
особое внимание таким приемам, как сравнение двух чисел, сопоставление, уста-
новление равенства и неравенства их, приемы наложения и приложения. Програм-
ма старшей группы направлена на расширение, углубление и обобщение у детей
элементарных математических представлений, дальнейшее развитие деятельности
счета. Детей учат считать в пределах 10, продолжают знакомить с цифрами перво-
го десятка. На основе действий с множествами и измерения с помощью условной
меры продолжается формирование представлений о числах до десяти. Образова-
ние каждого из новых чисел от 5 до 10 дается по методике, используемой в средней
группе, на основе сравнения двух групп предметов путем попарного соотнесения
элементов одной группы с элементами другой детям показывают принцип образо-
вания числа. Продолжают знакомить с цифрами. Соотнося определенную цифру
с числом, образованным тем или иным количеством предметов, воспитатель рас-
сматривает изображенные цифры, анализируя его, сопоставляет с уже знакомыми
цифрами, дети производят образные сравнения (единица, как солдатик, восемь по-
хожа на снеговика и т. д.). Особого внимания заслуживает число 10, так как оно за-
писывается двумя цифрами: 0 и 1. Поэтому прежде необходимо познакомить детей
с нулем. В течение всего учебного года дети упражняются в счете в пределах деся-
ти. Они пересчитывают предметы, игрушки, отсчитывают из большего количества
предметов меньшее, отсчитывают предметы по заданному числу, по цифре, по об-
разцу. Образец может быть дан в виде числовой карточки с определенным количе-
ством игрушек, предметов, геометрических фигур, в виде звуков, движений. При
выполнении этих упражнений важно научить детей внимательно слушать задания
воспитателя, запоминать их, а затем выполнять.
Детей необходимо учить считать, начиная с любого указанного предмета в
любом направлении, при этом не пропуская предметы и не пересчитывая их дваж-
ды. Для развития деятельности счета существенное значение имеют упражнения
с активным участием различных анализаторов: счет звуков, движение на ощупь в
пределах десяти. В старшей группе продолжается работа над усвоением порядко-
вого числа в пределах десяти. Детей учат различать порядковый и количественный
счет. Считая предметы по порядку, необходимо условиться, с какой стороны надо
считать. Так как именно от этого зависит результат счета. В старшей группе у де-
тей формируется понятие о том, что некоторые предметы можно разделить на не-
сколько частей: на две, на четыре. Например, яблоко. Здесь обязательно нужно об-
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ратить внимание детей на то, что части меньше целого, показать это на наглядном
примере.
В подготовительной к школе группе особое внимание уделяют развитию у
детей умения ориентироваться в некоторых скрытых существенных математиче-
ских связях, отношениях, зависимостях: «равно», «больше», «меньше», «целое и
часть», зависимостях между величинами, зависимости результата измерения от ве-
личины меры и др. Дети овладевают способами установления разного рода матема-
тических связей, отношений, например, способом установления соответствия меж-
ду элементами множеств (практического сопоставления элементов множеств один
к одному, использования приемов наложения, приложения для выяснения отноше-
ний величин). Они начинают понимать, что самыми точными способами установ-
ления количественных отношений являются счет предметов и измерение величин.
Навыки счета и измерения становятся у них достаточно прочными и осознанными.
Умение ориентироваться в существенных математических связях и зависимостях
и овладение соответствующими действиями позволяют поднять на новый уровень
наглядно-образное мышление дошкольников и создают предпосылки для развития
их умственной деятельности в целом. Дети приучаются считать одними глазами,
про себя, у них развиваются глазомер, быстрота реакции на форму.
Не менее важно в этом возрасте развитие умственных способностей, само-
стоятельности мышления, мыслительных операций анализа, синтеза, сравнения,
способности к отвлечению и обобщению, пространственного воображения. У де-
тей должны быть воспитаны устойчивый интерес к математическим знаниям, уме-
ние пользоваться ими и стремление самостоятельно их приобретать. Программа
по развитию элементарных математических представлений подготовительной к
школе группы предусматривает обобщение, систематизацию, расширение и углу-
бление знаний, приобретенных детьми в предыдущих группах. В средней группе
тщательно отрабатывают счетные навыки. Воспитатель многократно показывает и
разъясняет приемы счета, приучает детей вести счет предметов правой рукой слева
направо; в процессе счета указывать на предметы по порядку, дотрагиваясь до них
рукой; назвав последнее числительное, сделать обобщающий жест, обвести груп-
пу предметов рукой.
Дети обычно затрудняются в согласовании числительных с существитель-
ными (числительное один заменяют словом раз). Воспитатель подбирает для сче-
та предметы мужского, женского и среднего рода (например, цветные изображе-
ния яблок, слив, груш) и показывает, как в зависимости от того, какие предметы
пересчитываются, изменяются слова один, два. Для закрепления навыков счета ис-
пользуется большое количество упражнений. Чтобы создать предпосылки для са-
мостоятельного счета, меняют счетный материал, обстановку занятий, чередуют
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коллективную работу с самостоятельной работой детей с пособиями, разнообра-
зят приемы. Используются разнообразные игровые упражнения, в том числе такие,
которые позволяют не только закреплять умение вести счет предметов, но и фор-
мировать представления о форме, размере, способствуют развитию ориентировки
в пространстве. Счет связывают со сравнением размеров предметов, с различени-
ем геометрических фигур и выделением их признаков; с определением простран-
ственных направлений (слева, справа, впереди, сзади).
Детям предлагают найти определенное количество предметов в окружающей
обстановке. Вначале ребенку дают образец (карточку). Он ищет, каких игрушек
или вещей столько же, сколько кружков на карточке. Позднее дети учатся действо-
вать лишь по слову. Проводя работу с раздаточным материалом, надо учесть, что
дети еще не умеют отсчитывать предметы. Задания вначале даются такие, кото-
рые требуют от них умения считать, но не отсчитывать. Обучение приемам отсче-
та предметов. После того как дети научатся вести счет предметов, их учат отсчиты-
вать предметы, самостоятельно создавать группы, содержащие определенное чис-
ло предметов. Данной работе отводят 6–7 занятий. На этих занятиях параллельно
идет работа и по другим разделам программы. Обучение отсчету предметов начи-
нают с показа его приемов. Обычно новый способ действия поглощает внимание
ребенка, и он забывает, сколько предметов надо отсчитать. Многие дети, отсчиты-
вая, соотносят числительные не с предметами, а со своими движениями, напри-
мер, берут в руку предмет и произносят один, ставят его и говорят два. Объясняя
способ действия, воспитатель подчеркивает необходимость запомнить число, по-
казывает и разъясняет, что предмет надо брать молча и только тогда, когда он по-
ставлен, называть число. При проведении первых упражнений детям дается обра-
зец (карточка с кружками или рисунками предметов). Ребенок отсчитывает по об-
разцу столько игрушек (или вещей), сколько кружков на карточке. Карточка слу-
жит средством контроля за результатами действия. Дети считают кружки сначала
вслух, а в дальнейшем про себя. Кружки на карточке-образце могут быть располо-
жены по-разному. Вначале ребенок получает образец в руки, а позднее педагог его
только показывает. Особенно полезны упражнения в уравнивании совокупностей
предметов типа «Отсчитай и принеси столько пальто, чтобы всем куклам хвати-
ло». Ребенок считает игрушки и приносит требуемое. Данные упражнения позво-
ляют подчеркнуть значение счета.
На третьем занятии дети учатся отсчитывать предметы по названному чис-
лу. Педагог постоянно предупреждает их о необходимости запоминать числа. От
упражнения в воспроизведении одной группы дети переходят к составлению сразу
двух групп, к запоминанию двух чисел. Давая такие задания, называют соседние в
натуральном ряду числа. Это позволяет попутно упражнять детей в сравнении чи-
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сел. Детям предлагают не только отсчитать определенное количество предметов,
но и расположить их в определенном месте, например поставить на верхнюю или
нижнюю полочку, положить на столе слева или справа и т. п. Воспитатель меняет
количественные соотношения между одними и теми же предметами, а также ме-
сто их расположения. Устанавливаются связи между числом, качественными при-
знаками и пространственным расположением предметов. Дети все более самосто-
ятельно, не ожидая дополнительных вопросов, рассказывают о том, сколько, ка-
ких предметов и где расположено. Результаты отсчета они проверяют, пересчиты-
вая предметы. На последующих 2–3 занятиях детям предлагают сделать так, чтобы
разных предметов было поровну (3 круга, 3 квадрата, 3 прямоугольника – всех фи-
гур по 3). Общим признаком для всех групп предметов в данном случае является
равное их количество. После таких упражнений дети начинают понимать обобща-
ющее значение итогового числа. Показ независимости числа предметов от их про-
странственных признаков. Дети научаются (в итоге 8–10 занятий) вести счет и от-
счет предметов. Однако это не означает, что у них сложилось представление о чис-
ле. Воспитатели часто сталкиваются с фактом, когда ребенок, пересчитав предме-
ты, оценивает как большую группу ту, в которой предметов меньше, но они более
крупного размера. Как большую дети оценивают и группу предметов, занимаю-
щую большую площадь, несмотря на то, что в ней может быть меньше предметов,
чем в другой, занимающей меньшую площадь. Ребенку трудно отвлечься от много-
образных свойств и признаков предметов, составляющих множества. Пересчитав
предметы, он может тут же забыть результат счета и оценивает количество, ори-
ентируясь на пространственные признаки, выраженные более ярко. Внимание де-
тей обращают на то, что число предметов не зависит от пространственных призна-
ков: размера предметов, формы их расположения, площади, которую они занима-
ют. Этому посвящаются 2–3 специальных занятия, а в дальнейшем до конца учеб-
ного года к ним периодически возвращаются не менее 3–4 раз. Параллельно детей
упражняют в сравнении предметов разных размеров (по длине, ширине, высоте и
др.), уточняют некоторые пространственные представления, учат понимать и поль-
зоваться словами слева и справа, вверху и внизу, верхняя и нижняя, близко и дале-
ко; располагать предметы в один ряд слева и справа, по кругу, парами и т. д.
Независимость числа предметов от их пространственных признаков выясня-
ют на основе сравнения совокупностей предметов, отличающихся либо размерами,
либо формой расположения, либо расстояниями между предметами (площадью,
которую они занимают). Постоянно изменяют количественные отношения между
совокупностями. Количественные различия между совокупностями допустимы в
пределах Б 1 предмет. Дети уже познакомились с образованием всех чисел в преде-
лах 5, поэтому можно сразу на первом же занятии сравнивать группы, содержащие
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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3 и 4 или 4 и 5 предметов. Это служит более быстрому обобщению знаний, разви-
тию умения абстрагировать количество от пространственных признаков множеств
предметов. Работу необходимо организовывать таким образом, чтобы подчерки-
вать значение счета и приемов сопоставления множеств для выявления отношений
«больше», «меньше», «равно». Детей приучают пользоваться разными приемами
практического сопоставления множеств: наложением, приложением, составлени-
ем пар, применением эквивалентов (заместителей предметов). Эквиваленты приме-
няются тогда, когда невозможно приложить предметы одной совокупности к пред-
метам другой. Например, чтобы убедить детей в том, что на одной из карточек на-
рисовано столько же предметов, сколько на другой, берутся кружки и накладыва-
ются на рисунки одной карточки, а затем на рисунки другой. В зависимости от то-
го, остался ли лишний кружок или их не хватило, или кружков оказалось столь-
ко, сколько рисунков на второй карточке, делается вывод о том, на какой карточке
больше (меньше) предметов или их поровну на обеих карточках. Применение сче-
та в разных видах детской деятельности. Закрепление навыков счета требует боль-
шого количества упражнений. Упражнения в счете должны быть почти на каждом
занятии до конца учебного года. Однако, обучая счету, не следует ограничиваться
проведением формальных упражнений на занятиях. Педагог постоянно использует
и создает различные жизненные и игровые ситуации, требующие от детей приме-
нения навыков счета. В играх с куклами, например, дети выясняют, хватит ли по-
суды для приема гостей, одежды для того, чтобы собрать кукол на прогулку, и пр.
В игре в «магазин» пользуются чеками-карточками, на которых нарисовано опре-
деленное количество предметов или кружков. Воспитатель своевременно вносит
соответствующие атрибуты и подсказывает игровые действия, включающие счет
и отсчет предметов.
В быту часто возникают ситуации, требующие выполнения счета: по зада-
нию педагога дети выясняют, хватит ли тех или иных пособий или вещей детям,
сидящим за одним столом (коробок с карандашами, подставок, тарелок и пр.). Де-
ти считают игрушки, которые взяли на прогулку. Собираясь домой, проверяют, все
ли игрушки собраны. Любят ребята и просто пересчитывать предметы, которые
встречаются по пути. Стремясь углубить представления детей о значении счета,
педагог разъясняет им, для чего люди считают, что они хотят узнать, когда счита-
ют предметы. Он многократно на глазах у детей пересчитывает разные вещи, вы-
ясняя, хватит ли их для всех. Советует детям посмотреть, что считают их мамы,
папы, бабушки.
Счет групп предметов (множеств), воспринимаемых разными анализатора-
ми (слуховым, осязательно-двигательным). Наряду с опорой на зрительное воспри-
ятие (наглядно представленных множеств) важно упражнять детей в счете мно-
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жеств, воспринимаемых на слух, на ощупь, учить их вести счет движений. Упраж-
нения в счете на ощупь, а также в счете звуков проводят, не предлагая детям за-
крывать глаза. Это отвлекает ребят от счета. Воспитатель извлекает звуки за шир-
мой, чтобы дети только слышали их, но не видели движений руки. Они считают
на ощупь предметы, помещенные в мешочки. Для этой цели используют разные
пособия. Например, можно считать пуговицы на карточках, отверстия в дощечке,
игрушки в мешочке или под салфеткой и т. п. Соответственно, и звуки извлекают-
ся на разных музыкальных инструментах: барабане, металлофоне, палочках.
Упражняя детей в счете движений, им предлагают воспроизвести указанное
количество движений либо по образцу, либо по названному числу. Воспитатель по-
степенно усложняет характер движений, предлагая детям притопнуть правой (ле-
вой) ногой, поднять левую (правую) руку, наклониться вперед и т. п. Однако не сле-
дует четырехлетним детям предлагать слишком сложные движения, это отвлека-
ет их внимание от счета. Сопоставляются множества, воспринятые разными ана-
лизаторами, что способствует образованию межанализаторных связей и обеспечи-
вает обобщение знаний о числе. Детям предлагают, например, поднять руку столь-
ко раз, сколько они услышали звуков, или сколько пуговиц было на карточке, или
сколько игрушек стоит. Данная работа ведется параллельно с упражнениями в от-
счете предметов и в большой мере увязывается с ними.
Современная система образования широко использует искусство как педаго-
гически ценное средство развития личности ребенка. Именно искусство, отражаю-
щее художественный образ времени и пространства жизнедеятельности людей по-
зволяет ребенку открыть новые культурно-философские грани данных понятий.
Познание пространства и времени в культурно-исторической концепции позволя-
ет активизировать процесс развития ребенка и закладывать основы философско-
логического мышления, начиная с дошкольного детства. В дошкольном возрасте
закладываются основы знаний, необходимых ребенку в школе. Математика пред-
ставляет собой сложную науку, которая может вызвать определенные трудности во
время школьного обучения. К тому же далеко не все дети имеют склонности и об-
ладают математическим складом ума, поэтому при подготовке к школе важно по-
знакомить ребенка с основами счета. Дошкольники активно осваивают счёт, поль-
зуются числами, осуществляют элементарные вычисления по наглядной основе и
устно, осваивают простейшие временные и пространственные отношения, преоб-
разуют предметы различных форм и величин. Ребёнок, не осознавая того, прак-
тически включается в простую математическую деятельность, осваивая при этом
свойства, отношения, связи и зависимости на предметах и числовом уровне. Ма-
тематическая подготовка детей к школе предполагает не только усвоение детьми
определённых знаний, формирование у них количественных пространственных и
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
22
временных представлений. Все числовые представления, доступные для его воз-
раста, он должен извлечь из жизни, среди которой он живёт и в которой он прини-
мает деятельное участие. Его участие в жизни при нормальных условиях должно
выражаться лишь в одном – в работе-игре. Формированию у детей элементарных
математических представлений способствуют используемые методические прие-
мы (сочетание практической и игровой деятельности, решение детьми проблемно-
игровых и поисковых ситуаций). Большинство занятий носит интегрированный
характер, в которых математические задачи сочетаются с другими видами дет-
ской деятельности. Основной упор в обучении отводится самостоятельному реше-
нию дошкольниками поставленных задач, выбору ими приемов и средств, провер-
ке правильности его решения. Обучение детей включает как прямые, так и посред-
ственные методы, которые способствуют не только овладению математическими
знаниями, но и общему интеллектуальному развитию. Занятия предполагают раз-
личные формы объединения детей (пары, малые подгруппы, вся группа) в зависи-
мости от целей учебно-познавательной деятельности. Это позволяет воспитывать у
дошкольников навыки взаимодействия со сверстниками, коллективной деятельно-
сти. При объяснении нового материала необходимо опираться на имеющиеся у до-
школьников знания и представления, поддерживать интерес детей в течение всего
занятия, использовать игровые методы и разнообразный дидактический материал,
активизировать внимание на занятиях, подводить их к самостоятельным выводам,
учить аргументировать свои рассуждения, поощрять разнообразные варианты от-
ветов детей [9; 10; 11]. Все полученные знания и умения закрепляются в дидакти-
ческих играх, которым необходимо уделять большое внимание. Большое внима-
ние уделяется индивидуальной работе с детьми на занятии. Кроме того, предлага-
ются задания для родителей с целью привлечения их к совместной деятельности с
воспитателем. В конце учебного года с помощью специально разработанных мето-
дик целесообразно провести проверку уровня овладения детьми знаниями, умени-
ями и навыками.
Все полученные знания и умения подготавливают к усвоению детьми более
сложных математических задач на следующей ступени развития. А это значит, что,
формируя элементарные математические представления в детском саду, мы гото-
вим ребенка к изучению математики в школе.
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Содержание занятий
«Формирование элементарных математических представлений»
Раздел 1. Ориентирование в пространстве
1.1 Пространственное расположение предметов. Под руководством педаго-
га дети овладевают умением раскладывать определенное количество предметов в
указанном направлении: на верхней, нижней части листа, слева, справа. Учить де-
тей правильно по смыслу употреблять слова для обозначения положения предме-
тов на листе бумаги, на столе, на полу. Дети 6–7 лет должны свободно ориентиро-
ваться в направлении движения в пространственных отношениях между ними и
предметами, а также между предметами. Большое значение имеет развитие умения
ориентироваться на плоскости. Вся работа должна строиться на основе выделения
парных противоположных понятий: «налево – направо», «вперед – назад». Особен-
но важно обеспечить действенное овладение детьми пространственной ориентаци-
ей. Они должны не только определять направления и отношения между предмета-
ми, но и уметь использовать эти знания: передвигаться в указанном направлении,
располагать и перемещать предметы. Выделенные пространственные связи и отно-
шения должны отражаться в речи с помощью предлогов и наречий: в, на, под, над,
перед, за, сзади, впереди, вверху, внизу, выше, ниже, рядом, друг за другом, между,
напротив, левая, правая, верхняя, нижняя.
Раздел 2. Количество и счет. Продолжать обучение детей счету, закрепить
умение употреблять как количественные, так и порядковые числительные в пре-
делах 10. Дети предшкольного возраста считают предметы, сопоставляют коли-
чество разных предметов и определяют, каких больше (меньше) или их поров-
ну, каким способом при этом пользуются: счетом, соотнесением один к одному,
определением на глаз или сравнением чисел, умеют ли дети сравнивать числен-
ности совокупностей, отвлекаясь от размеров предметов и площади, которую они
занимают.
2.1 Счет предметов. Продолжать формировать понимание связей между чис-
лами: каждое следующее число больше предыдущего, а предыдущее меньше по-
следующего. Группы предметов одного вида разбивают на подгруппы (подмноже-
ства) и сопоставляют друг с другом («Больше высоких или низких елочек?»), груп-
пу предметов сопоставляют с ее частью. («Чего больше: красных квадратов или
красных и синих квадратов вместе?»)
Дети должны каждый раз рассказывать, как получено данное число пред-
метов, к какому числу предметов и сколько они добавили или от какого числа и
сколько убавили.
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2.2 Множества и элементы логики. При закреплении навыков счета и отсчета
важно наряду со счетом отдельных предметов упражнять детей в счете групп, со-
стоящих из однородных предметов. Вначале они помогают в наглядной форме вы-
явить количественные отношения, показать значение чисел и раскрыть связи и от-
ношения, существующие между ними. Позднее, когда средством установления ко-
личественных отношений («поровну», «больше», «меньше») все более становит-
ся счет и сравнение чисел, способы практического сопоставления используют как
средство проверки, доказательства установленных отношений. Важно, чтобы де-
ти научились самостоятельно прибегать к способам практического сопоставления
групп предметов, доказывая правильность своих суждений о связях и отношени-
ях между смежными числами. Каждый раз устанавливают связь между количе-
ством групп и количеством предметов в группе. Дети видят: увеличивают количе-
ство групп – уменьшают количество предметов в каждой из них, уменьшают коли-
чество групп – увеличивают в каждой из них количество предметов (при условии,
что общее число предметов одно и то же).
2.3 Последовательности. Продолжать работу по закреплению у детей пред-
ставлений о последовательности дней недели, времен года. В классе предшколь-
ной подготовки закрепляют знания о таких периодах времени, как утро, день, ве-
чер, ночь, неделя, дают представление о месяцах, ребята запоминают их названия.
Знание эталонов времени, умение устанавливать временные отношения способ-
ствуют осознанию детьми последовательности происходящих событий, причинно-
следственных связей между ними. Формирование о временных представлениий
(утро, день, обед, вечер, ночь; сегодня, вчера, завтра, послезавтра). Формирование
представления о том, что утро, день, вечер, ночь составляют сутки. Обучение уме-
нию пользоваться в речи словами-понятиями: сначала, потом, до, после, раньше,
позже, в одно и то же время. Важно, чтобы дети научились быстро и уверенно ве-
сти счет от 1 до 10 в прямом и обратном порядке, т. е. прочно усвоили последо-
вательность первых 10 натуральных чисел. Этому способствуют разнообразные
упражнения в счете, которые проводят без опоры на наглядный материал. («По-
считай от 1 до 10. Посчитай в обратном порядке. Какое число идет до 5? А после 5
и т.д. Педагог постоянно сосредоточивает внимание ребят на том, сколько времени
они могут одеваться или раздеваться, рисовать, играть, сколько минут осталось до
конца занятия. Каждый раз указывают, когда время истекло, поощряют тех, кто во-
время закончил работу. Развитое чувство времени помогает детям стать более ор-
ганизованными, дисциплинированными.
2.4 Величины. Учить детей измерять и сравнивать длину, ширину, высоту
предметов с помощью условной меры. Знать временные представления: сегодня,
вчера, завтра, послезавтра; части суток. Знать количество дней в неделе/месяцев
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в году. Широко используются дидактические игры и игровые упражнения: «Дни
недели», «Продолжай!», «Наоборот». Дети дополняют начатую педагогом фразу,
подбирают слова противоположного значения (утро – вечер, сначала – потом, бы-
стро – медленно), определяют, что дольше: день или неделя, неделя или месяц, ме-
сяц или год. Детей предшкольного возраста знакомят с названием текущего ме-
сяца. Они постепенно запоминают названия месяцев, порядок их следования. Бы-
строму запоминанию содействует чтение книги С. Я. Маршака «Двенадцать меся-
цев». Сравнивать предметы по длине, весу с помощью условной меры. Формиро-
вание представления о весах, используемых в магазинах. Сопоставление величин
осуществляется не изолированно, а в системе рассмотрения других свойств пред-
метов (их предназначение, части, цвет, материал) Это имеет существенное значе-
ние для умственного развития детей. Они должны овладеть способами сопостав-
ления линейных размеров, умением устанавливать связь между способом ориенти-
ровочного действия (приложения, вплотную) и соответствующим признаком, упо-
треблять точные количественные характеристики величин. Величина становит-
ся объектом элементарных математических действий. Дети получают первые кон-
кретные представления о ее свойствах. Дети 6–7 лет переходят от непосредствен-
ной оценки величин к их более точной количественной характеристике, которую
получают путем измерения. В процессе измерения единица измерения (мерка) как
бы дробит измеряемую величину (длину, объем) на части, каждая из которых ей
равна. Число, полученное в результате измерения, выражает отношение целого к
его части. Измерение позволяет детям понять относительность числа, его зависи-
мость от избранной меры.
Раздел 3. Геометрические фигуры
3.1 Фигуры и тела. Продолжать углубление и расширение представлений де-
тей о геометрических фигурах. В математике существует огромное количество ге-
ометрических фигур. Их объединение или отдельные части составляют геометри-
ческие фигуры. Знание и изучение простых геометрических фигур улучшит мыш-
ление, логику, память, внимание. Необходимо учить детей не только различать, но
и воспроизводить фигуры и тела. В математике изучаются не только плоские фигу-
ры, но и объемные. Объемные фигуры: шар, конус, тетраэдр, куб, цилиндр, парал-
лелепипед, пирамида. Дети должны без труда различать все основные геометриче-
ские фигуры и правильно их называть. Группируя фигуры, дети ориентируются на
один признак, отвлекаясь от других. У них развивается способность к отвлечению,
обобщению. Целесообразно, проводя упражнение в группировке, систематизиро-
вать знания детей о форме, например, вначале распределить фигуры на две боль-
шие группы – фигуры круглой формы и многоугольники. Полезно предлагать де-
тям такие задания: «Найдите, какая фигура в ряду лишняя, какую ошибку сдела-
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ли при подборе фигур» (Среди 6 треугольников, расположенных в ряд, помещен 1
четырехугольник) «Какой фигуры не хватает?» (Треугольники, фигуры овальной
формы, прямоугольники 3–4 размеров распределены по рядам, в каждом ряду фи-
гуры одной разновидности расположены в порядке убывающего или возрастающе-
го размера, в последнем ряду 1 фигуры не хватает).
3.2 Взаимное расположение фигур. Упражнение в умении различать и назы-
вать геометрические фигуры и тела, моделировать геометрические фигуры; мо-
делировать из нескольких треугольников один многоугольник, из нескольких ма-
леньких квадратов – один большой прямоугольник; из частей круга – круг, из че-
тырех отрезков – четырехугольник, из двух коротких отрезков – один длинный;
конструировать фигуры по словесному описанию и показу. Логику детей разви-
вает составление из нескольких геометрических фигур одной целой, например, из
двух треугольников – квадрата или ромба, из квадратов в сложенном виде – треу-
гольников, из наложенных одна на другую фигур можно получить звезды. Позна-
комить детей с простыми задачами-головоломками. Развивает мышление детей за-
дания, в которых нужно сравнить величину фигур (какая больше/меньше, либо
сложить по возрастанию, например), их цвета (отсортировать по цветам и оттен-
кам), предложение сложить некий объект из данных фигур (например, домик из
треугольников и квадратов, елку из треугольников). Фигуры сопоставляют попар-
но, организуют обследование их осязательно-двигательным и зрительным путями.
Для закрепления и уточнения знаний дают различного рода задания на воспроиз-
ведение фигур. Дети вырезывают плоские фигуры из бумаги, лепят объемные из
пластилина, преобразуют фигуры, получают из них другие.
Раздел 4. Математическое моделирование
Дети 6–7 лет должны усвоить широкий круг знаний о числе, форме и величи-
не предметов, научиться ориентироваться в пространстве (2- и 3-мерном) и во вре-
мени
1.1 Математический язык и математическая модель. Воспитывать у детей
устойчивый интерес к математическим знаниям, умение пользоваться ими и стрем-
ление самостоятельно их приобретать. Особенно важно развитие самостоятельно-
сти мышления, пространственного воображения. Использовать и понимать знак
«-» как знак, объединяющий предметы, «–» как знак удаления из группы предме-
тов. Для закрепления можно предложить дидактические игры по формированию
математических представлений: игры с цифрами и числами; игры путешествие во
времени; игры на ориентирование в пространстве; игры с геометрическими фигу-
рами; игры на логическое мышление Начинать обучение надо с задач на сложение
и лишь после них переходить к задачам на вычитание. В задачах на сложение детей
знакомят (используя карточки) со знаками «-» и «–», в задачах на вычитание – «–».
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Занимательность математическому материалу придают игровые элементы, содер-
жащиеся в каждой задаче, логическом упражнении, развлечении, будь то шашки
или самая элементарная головоломка.
Игра – это не только удовольствие и радость для ребенка, что само по себе
очень важно, с ее помощью можно развивать внимание, память, мышление, вооб-
ражение малыша. Играя, ребенок может приобретать, новы знания, умения, навы-
ки, развивать способности, подчас не догадываясь об этом [12; 13; 14; 15]. К важ-
нейшим свойствам игры относят тот факт, что в игре дети действуют так, как дей-
ствовали бы в самых экстремальных ситуациях, на пределе сил преодоления труд-
ности. Причем столь высокий уровень активности достигается ими, почти всег-
да добровольно, без принуждения. Высокая активность, эмоциональная окрашен-
ность игры порождает и высокую степень открытости участников. Эксперимен-
тально было показано, что в ситуации некоторой рассеянности внимания иногда
легче убедить человека принять новую для него точку зрения. Если чем-то незна-
чительным отвлекать внимание человека, то эффект убеждения будет более силь-
ным. Возможно, этим в какой-то степени определяется высокая продуктивность
обучающего воздействия игровых ситуаций [16; 17; 18].
Можно выделить следующие особенности игры для дошкольников:
1. Игра является наиболее доступным и ведущим видом деятельности детей
дошкольного возраста.
2. Игра также является эффективным средством формирования личности до-
школьника, его морально-волевых качеств.
3. Все психологические новообразования берут начало в игре.
4. Игра способствует формированию всех сторон личности ребенка, приво-
дит к значительным изменениям в его психике.
5. Игра – важное средство умственного воспитания ребенка, где умственная
активность связана с работой всех психических процессов.
На всех ступенях дошкольного детства игровому методу на занятиях отво-
диться большая роль. Следует отметить, что «обучающая игра» (хотя слово «обуча-
ющая» можно считать синонимом слова «дидактическая») подчеркивает использо-
вание игры как метода обучения, а не закрепления или повторения уже усвоенных
знаний. На занятиях и в повседневной жизни широко используются дидактические
игры и игровые упражнения. Организуя игры вне занятий, закрепляют, углубляют
и расширяют математические представления детей, а главное, одновременно реша-
ются обучающие и игровые задачи. В ряде случаев игры несут основную учебную
нагрузку. Вот почему на занятиях и в повседневной жизни воспитатели должны
широко использовать дидактические игры. Дидактические игры включаются не-
посредственно в содержание занятий как одного из средств реализации программ-
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ных задач. Место дидактической игры в структуре занятий по формированию эле-
ментарных математических представлений определяется возрастом детей, целью,
назначением, содержанием занятия. Она может быть использована в качестве учеб-
ного задания, упражнения, направленного на выполнение конкретной задачи фор-
мирования представлений. В младшей группе, особенно в начале года, всё занятие
должно быть проведено в форме игры. Дидактические игры уместны и в конце за-
нятия с целью воспроизведения, закрепления ранее изученного. В формировании
у детей математических представлений широко используются занимательные по
форме и содержанию разнообразные дидактические игровые упражнения. Дидак-
тические игры делятся на:
– игры с предметами;
– настольно-печатные игры;
– словесные игры.
Также при формировании элементарных представлений у дошкольников
можно использовать: игры на плоскостное моделирование (Пифагор, Танграм, Аль
Фараби и т. д.), игры головоломки, задачи-шутки, кроссворды, ребусы, развиваю-
щие игры [19; 20; 21]. Несмотря на многообразие игр, их главной задачей должно
быть развитие логического мышления, а именно умение устанавливать простей-
шие закономерности: порядок чередования фигур по цвету, форме, размеру. Этому
способствуют и игровые упражнения на нахождение пропущенной в ряду фигуры.
Также необходимым условием, обеспечивающим успех в работе, является творче-
ское отношение воспитателя к математическим играм: варьирование игровых дей-
ствий и вопросов, индивидуализация требований к детям, повторение игр в том же
виде или с усложнением. Широкое использование специальных обучающих игр
важно для пробуждения у дошкольников интереса к математическим знаниям, со-
вершенствования познавательной деятельности, общего умственного развития. Ра-
боту по развитию у детей элементарных математических представлений органи-
зуем на занятиях 2 раза в неделю. Занятия состоят из нескольких частей, объеди-
ненных одной темой. Продолжительность и интенсивность занятий на протяжении
всего года увеличивается постепенно. В структуру каждого занятия предусмотрен
перерыв для снятия умственного и физического напряжения продолжительностью
1–3 минуты. Это может быть динамическое упражнение с речевым сопровожде-
нием или «пальчиковая гимнастика», упражнения для глаз или упражнение на ре-
лаксацию. На каждом занятии дети выполняют различные виды деятельности с
целью закрепления у математических знаний. Из всего многообразия заниматель-
ного материала на своих занятиях часто применяю дидактические игры. Основ-
ное назначение их – обеспечить детей знаниями в различении, выделении, называ-
нии множества предметов, чисел, геометрических фигур, направлений. Дидакти-
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ческую игру включаю непосредственно в содержание занятий как одно из средств
реализации программных задач. Дидактические игры по формированию матема-
тических представлений условно делятся на следующие группы:
1) игры с цифрами и числами;
2) игры путешествия во времени;
3) игры на ориентирование в пространстве;
4) игры с геометрическими фигурами;
5) игры на логическое мышление.
К первой группе игр относится обучение детей счету в прямом и обратном
порядке. Используя сказочный сюжет, знакомлю детей с образованием всех чисел
в пределах 10 (20), путем сравнивания равных и неравных групп предметов. Срав-
ниваются две группы предметов, расположенные то на нижней, то на верхней по-
лоске счетной линейки. Это делается для того, чтобы у детей не возникало оши-
бочное представление о том, что большее число всегда находится на верхней поло-
се, а меньшее – на нижней. Играя в такие дидактические игры, как «Какой цифры
не стало?», «Сколько?», «Путаница», «Исправь ошибку», «Убираем цифры», «На-
зови соседей», дети учатся свободно оперировать числами в пределах 10 (20) и со-
провождать словами свои действия. Дидактические игры, такие как «Задумай чис-
ло», «Число, как тебя зовут?», «Составь табличку», «Составь цифру», «Кто первый
назовет, которой игрушки не стало?» и многие другие используются на заняти-
ях в свободное время, с целью развития у детей внимания, памяти, мышления [22;
23; 24]. Игра «Считай, не ошибись!» помогает усвоению порядка следования чисел
натурального ряда, упражнения в прямом и обратном счете. В игре используется
мяч. Дети встают полукругом. Перед началом игры задаю вопрос, в каком поряд-
ке (прямом или обратном) считать. Затем бросается мяч и называется число. Тот,
кто поймал мяч, продолжает считать дальше. Игра проходит в быстром темпе, за-
дания повторяются многократно, чтобы дать возможность как можно большему
количеству детей принять в ней участие. Такое разнообразие дидактических игр,
упражнений, используемых на занятиях и в свободное время, помогает детям усво-
ить программный материал. Для подкрепления порядкового счета помогают та-
блицы со сказочными героями, направляющимися к Винни-Пуху (Буратино, Крас-
ной Шапочке) в гости. Кто будет первый? Кто идет второй? и т. д.
Вторая группа математических игр (игры-путешествия во времени) служит
для знакомства детей с днями недели. Объясняется, что каждый день недели име-
ет свое название. Для того чтобы дети лучше запоминали название дней недели,
они обозначаются кружочками разного цвета. Наблюдение провожу несколько не-
дель, обозначая кружочками каждый день. Это делается специально для того, что-
бы дети смогли самостоятельно сделать вывод, что последовательность дней неде-
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ли неизменна. Детям рассказываю о том, что в названии дней недели угадывается,
какой день недели по счету: понедельник – первый день после окончания недели,
вторник – второй день, среда – середина недели, четверг – четвертый день, пятни-
ца – пятый. После такой беседы предлагаются игры с целью закрепления названий
дней недели и их последовательности. Дети с удовольствием играют в игру «Жи-
вая неделя». Для игры вызывают к доске 7 детей, они пересчитываются по поряд-
ку и получают кружочки разного цвета, обозначающие дни недели. Дети выстра-
иваются в такой последовательности, как по порядку идут дни недели. Например,
первый ребенок с желтым кружочком в руках, обозначающий первый день неде-
ли – понедельник и т.д. Затем игра усложняется. Дети строятся с любого другого
дня недели. В дальнейшем можно использовать следующие игры «Назови скорее»,
«Дни недели», «Назови пропущенное слово», «Круглый год», «Двенадцать меся-
цев», которые помогают детям быстро запомнить название дней недели и название
месяцев, их последовательность.
В третью группу входят игры на ориентирование в пространстве. Простран-
ственные представления детей постоянно расширяются и закрепляются в процессе
всех видов деятельности. Моя задача – научить детей ориентироваться в специаль-
но созданных пространственных ситуациях и определять свое место по заданному
условию. При помощи дидактических игр и упражнений дети овладевают умени-
ем определять словом положение того или иного предмета по отношению к друго-
му. Например, справа от куклы стоит заяц, слева от куклы – пирамида и т. д. Вы-
бирается ребенок, и игрушка прячется по отношению к нему (за спину, справа, сле-
ва и т. д.). Это вызывает интерес у детей и организовывает их на занятие. Для то-
го, чтобы заинтересовать детей, чтобы результат был лучше, используются пред-
метные игры с появлением какого-либо сказочного героя. Например, игра «Найди
игрушку».
– Ночью, когда в группе никого не было, – говорится детям, – к нам прилетал
Карлсон и принес в подарок игрушки. Карлсон любит шутить, поэтому он спрятал
игрушки, а в письме написал, как их можно найти. Затем распечатывается письмо,
в котором написано: «Надо встать перед столом воспитателя, пройти 3 шага впра-
во» и т. д.
Дети выполняют задание, находят игрушку. Затем задание усложняется, –
т. е. в письме дается не описание местонахождения игрушки, а только схема. По
схеме дети должны определить, где находится спрятанный предмет. Существует
множество игр, упражнений, способствующих развитию пространственного ори-
ентирования у детей: «Найди похожую», «Расскажи про свой узор», «Мастерская
ковров», «Художник», «Путешествие по комнате» и многие другие игры. Играя в
рассмотренные игры, дети учатся употреблять слова для обозначения положения
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предметов. Для закрепления знаний о форме геометрических фигур детям пред-
лагается узнать в окружающих предметах форму круга, треугольника, квадрата.
Например, спрашивается: «Какую геометрическую фигуру напоминает дно тарел-
ки?» (поверхность крышки стола, лист бумаги т.д.). Проводится игра типа «Лото».
Детям предлагаются картинки (по 3–4 шт. на каждого), на которых они отыскива-
ют фигуру, подобную той, которая демонстрируется. Затем предлагается детям на-
звать и рассказать, что они нашли.
Дидактическую игру «Геометрическая мозаика» можно использовать на за-
нятиях и в свободное время, с целью закрепления знаний о геометрических фигу-
рах, с целью развития внимания и воображения у детей. Перед началом игры дети
делятся на две команды в соответствии с уровнем их умений и навыков. Командам
даются задания разной сложности. Например:
– составление изображения предмета из геометрических фигур (работа по
готовому расчлененному образцу);
– работа по условию (собрать фигуру человека, девочка в платье);
– работа по собственному замыслу (просто человека).
Каждая команда получает одинаковые наборы геометрических фигур. Дети
самостоятельно договариваются о способах выполнения задания, о порядке рабо-
ты. Каждый играющий в команде по очереди участвует в преобразовании геоме-
трической фигуры, добавляя свой элемент, составляя отдельный элемент предмета
из нескольких фигур. В заключение дети анализируют свои фигуры, находят сход-
ства и различия в решении конструктивного замысла. Использование данных ди-
дактических игр способствует закреплению у детей памяти, внимания, мышления
[25; 26; 27].
Рассмотрим дидактические игры для развития логического мышления. В до-
школьном возрасте у детей начинают формироваться элементы логического мыш-
ления, т.е. формируется умение рассуждать, делать свои умозаключения. Суще-
ствует множество дидактических игр и упражнений, которые влияют на развитие
творческих способностей у детей, так как они оказывают действие на воображение
и способствуют развитию нестандартного мышления у детей. Это такие игры, как
«Найди нестандартную фигуру, чем отличаются?», «Мельница» и другие. Они на-
правлены на тренировку мышления при выполнении действий.
Это задания на нахождение пропущенной фигуры, продолжения ряды фи-
гур, знаков, на поиск чисел. Знакомство с такими играми начинается с элементар-
ных заданий на логическое мышление – цепочки закономерностей. В таких упраж-
нениях идет чередование предметов или геометрических фигур. Детям предлагаю
продолжить ряд или найти пропущенный элемент. Кроме того, даю задания такого
характера: продолжить цепочку, чередуя в определенной последовательности ква-
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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драты, большие и маленькие круги желтого и красного цвета. После того, как де-
ти научатся выполнять такие упражнения, задания для них усложняются. Предла-
гаю выполнить задание, в котором необходимо чередовать предметы, учитывать
одновременно цвет и величину. Любая математическая задача на смекалку, для ка-
кого бы возраста она не предназначалась, несет в себе определенную умственную
нагрузку. Занимательность математическому материалу придают игровые элемен-
ты, содержащиеся в каждой задаче, логическом упражнении, развлечении, будь то
шашки или самая элементарная головоломка. Начинать надо с самых простых го-
ловоломок – с палочками, где в ходе решения идут, как правило, трансфигурация,
преобразование одних фигур в другие, а не только изменение их количества.
В ходе решения каждой новой задачи ребенок включается в активную мыс-
лительную деятельность, стремясь достичь конечной цели. Ежедневные упражне-
ния в составлении геометрических фигур (квадрат, прямоугольник, треугольник)
из счетных палочек дает возможность закреплению знаний о формах и видоизме-
нениях. Знакомлю детей со способами пристроения, присоединения, перестрое-
ния одной формы из другой. Первые попытки не всегда приводят к положительно-
му результату, но методы «проб и ошибок» приводят к тому, что постепенно коли-
чество проб сокращается. Усвоив способ пристроения фигур, дети осваивают спо-
соб построения фигур путем деления геометрической фигуры на несколько (четы-
рехугольник или квадрат на два треугольника, на два квадрата). Работая с палоч-
ками, дети способны представить возможные пространственные, количественные
изменения.
Задачи на смекалку различны по степени сложности, характеру преобразо-
вания. Их нельзя решить каким-либо усвоенным ранее способом. В ходе решения
каждой новой задачи ребенок включается в активную умственную деятельность,
стремясь достичь конечной цели – видоизменить или построить пространствен-
ную фигуру [28; 29; 30].
Для детей 6–7 лет задачи на смекалку можно объединить в 3 группы (по спо-
собу перестроения фигур, степени сложности).
1. Задачи на составление заданной фигуры из определенного количества па-
лочек: составить 2 равных квадрата из 7 палочек, 2 равных треугольника из 5 па-
лочек.
2. Задачи на изменение фигур, для решения которых надо убрать указанное
количество палочек.
3. Задачи на смекалку, решение которых состоит в перекладывании палочек с
целью видоизменения, преобразования заданной фигуры.
В ходе обучения способам решения задачи на смекалку даются в указанной
последовательности, начиная с более простых, чтобы усвоенные детьми умения и
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навыки готовили ребят к более сложным действиям. Организуя эту работу, ставлю
цель – учить детей приемам самостоятельного поиска решения задач, не предлагая
никаких готовых способов, образцов решения.
Самые простые задачи первой группы дети без труда могут решить, если
ежедневно упражнять их в составлении геометрических фигур (квадратов, прямо-
угольников, треугольников) из счетных палочек. Головоломки первой группы де-
тям предлагают в определенной последовательности. Переходя от простых зада-
ний к более сложным, я уделяю внимание играм с составлением плоскостных изо-
бражений предметов, животных, птиц, домов, кораблей из специальных наборов
геометрических фигур. Это игра «Танграм». Она еще называется «Головоломкой
из картона». На первом этапе закрепляем знания геометрических фигур, уточняем
знания в пространственном представлении, умение ориентироваться на столе. За-
тем приступаем составлять новые фигуры с помощью образцов. При воссоздании
фигуры на плоскости очень важно мысленно представить изменения в расположе-
нии фигур, которые происходят в результате их трансфигурации. По мере освое-
ния детьми способов составления фигур-силуэтов предлагаю им задания творче-
ского характера, давая возможность проявить смекалку, находчивость. В ходе обу-
чения дети быстро осваивают игры на воссоздание образных фигур, сюжетных
изображений.
Еще одной занимательной игрой является «Коломбо яйцо». После рассмотре-
нии и назывании частей, определении формы и размера ребятам предлагаю най-
ти сходства: фигуры треугольной формы с закруглением имеют сходства по фор-
ме с крыльями птиц; большие по размеру фигуры (треугольники и квадраты с за-
кругленной стороной) похожи на туловище птиц, зверей, морских животных. Та-
кое соотношение и сравнение частей развивает у детей воображение, умение ана-
лизировать предметы и изображения сложной формы, выделять составляющие ча-
сти. Дети быстро находят решения и составляют самостоятельные фигуры по сво-
им замыслам. В этих играх у детей развиваются сенсорные способности, простран-
ственные представления, образное и логическое мышление, смекалку и сообрази-
тельность. У детей формируется привычка к умственному труду [30; 31].
Результаты исследования, диагностика.
Работа ДОУ по развитию элементарных математических представлений у де-
тей дошкольного возраста является одним из приоритетных направлений в целост-
ном развитии ребенка-дошкольника. Для обследования уровня развития элемен-
тарных математических представлений детей моей группы использовались следу-
ющие методы контроля:
1) анализ деятельности детей на занятиях;
2) анализ деятельности детей в процессе дидактических игр;
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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3) анализ общения детей в процессе игр, самостоятельной деятельности.
Было выявлено:
подготовительная группа:
первый срез. 75' детей считают до 10 и далее, знают цифры до 10, умеют на-
зывать числительные, обозначая количество.
68' детей знают порядковый счет.
68' – знают геометрические фигуры и их признаки.
87' детей умеют отсчитывать предметы по названному числу или по образ-
цу, владеют понятиями «много», «мало», «один», «несколько», «больше», «мень-
ше», «поровну».
75' детей умеют сравнивать предметы по длине методом наложения, опре-
деляют величину предметов (длинный, короткий, одинаковые).
Лишь 50' детей умеют определять положение предмета в пространстве.
Остальные дети слабо различают понятия – впереди, сзади, близко, далеко.
Элементарные представления о времени и о частях суток сформированы у
56' детей.
68' умеют раскладывать предметы по увеличению или по уменьшению дли-
ны, называют и показывают круг, квадрат и треугольник.
56' детей хорошо владеют понятием длины, ширины, высоты, сравнивают
предметы наложением и визуально.
62' детей употребляют в речи термины, обозначающие величину: тяжелее,
легче, мельче, тоньше, глубже, толще.
У 56' детей средней группы сформированы пространственно-временные
представления.
62' могут определить нахождение предметов по отношению к себе: правее,
ниже, между и т.д.
68' детей умеют ориентироваться на листе бумаги
Второй срез. Было выявлено:
подготовительная группа:
87' детей владеют количественным и порядковым счетом до 10, умеют соот-
носить количество предметов с цифрой, составлять число из единиц.
У 81' детей группы сформированы понятия высоты, ширины, длины, с по-
мощью условной мерки измеряют объем сыпучих и жидких веществ.
93' – знают геометрические фигуры и их признаки.
100' детей умеют отсчитывать предметы по названному числу или по образ-
цу, владеют понятиями «много», «мало», «один», «несколько», «больше», «мень-
ше», «поровну».
81' детей умеют определять положение предмета в пространстве.
3–4
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81' могут определить нахождение предметов по отношению к себе: правее,
ниже, между и т.д.
86' детей умеют сравнивать предметы по длине методом наложения, опре-
деляют величину предметов (длинный, короткий, одинаковые).
94' умеют раскладывать предметы по увеличению или по уменьшению дли-
ны, называют и показывают круг, квадрат и треугольник.
У 75' детей сформированы временные представления: дети знают времена
года, месяцы, дни недели, части суток.
75' детей употребляют в речи термины, обозначающие величину: тяжелее,
легче, мельче, тоньше, глубже, толще.
81' детей умеют ориентироваться на листе бумаги.
У 68' детей средней группы сформированы пространственно-временные
представления.
75' умеют решать простые задачи, при их решении осознанно выбирают
арифметические действия сложения (-) и вычитания (-) с опорой на наглядный ма-
териал.
Исследование проводилось в три этапа. На подготовительном этапе разраба-
тывается системный комплекс занятий, связанных с формированием элементар-
ных математических представлений у дошкольников с использованием дидактиче-
ских игр. Основной этап предполагает проведение занятий по формированию эле-
ментарных математических представлений с использованием дидактических игр в
течение учебного года. На заключительном этапе анализируются результаты про-
веденной работы, проводились обобщения, математическая обработка получен-
ных результатов, планируется ее усовершенствование и продолжение в группе.
В качестве критериев оценки уровня математического развития использова-
лась десятибалльная система.
8–10 баллов – ребёнок оперирует свойствами объектов, обнаруживает зависи-
мости и изменения в группах объектов в процессе группировки, сравнения; сосчи-
тывает предметы в пределе 10. Устанавливает связи увеличения (уменьшения) ко-
личества, чисел, размеров предметов по длине, толщине, высоте и т. д. Проявляет
творческую самостоятельность в практической, игровой деятельности, применяет
известные ему способы действия в иной обстановке.
4–7 баллов – ребёнок различает, называет, обобщает предметы по выделен-
ным свойствам. Выполняет действия по группировке, воссозданию фигур. Обоб-
щает группы предметов по количеству (числу), размеру. Считает в пределах 3–7.
Самостоятельно осуществляет действия, ведущие к изменению количества, числа,
величины. Затрудняется в высказываниях, пояснениях.
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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1–3 балла – ребёнок различает предметы по отдельным свойствам, называ-
ет их, группирует в совместной со взрослым деятельности. Пользуется числами
в пределах 2–5, допускает ошибки. Выполняет игровые практические действия в
определенной последовательности; связи между действиями (что сначала, что по-
том) не устанавливает.
Исследование показало, что использование дидактических игр на занятиях
благотворно влияет на усвоение элементарных математических представлений у
дошкольников и способствует повышению уровня математического развития де-
тей. Элементарные знания по математике, определённые современными требова-
ниями, в основном усваиваются детьми, но необходимо углубление и дифферен-
циация индивидуальной работы с каждым ребёнком, что может быть предметом
нашего дальнейшего исследования. Обновление и качественное улучшение систе-
мы математического развития дошкольников позволяет педагогам искать наиболее
интересные формы работы, что способствует развитию элементарных математиче-
ских представлений.
Практические рекомендации по формированию элементарных математиче-
ских представлений у дошкольников:
1. Продолжить дальнейшую работу по повышению эффективности формиро-
вания элементарных математических представлений у дошкольников.
2. Целенаправленное развитие элементарных математических представлений
должно осуществляться на протяжении всего дошкольного периода.
Список литературы
1. Формирование элементарных математических представлений у дошкольников:
хрестоматия. – Алматы: Феникс, 2016. – 375 с.
2. Государственный общеобязательный стандарт дошкольного воспитания и обу-
чения (ППРК от 23 августа 2012 года №1080).
3. Типовой учебный план для дошкольного воспитания и обучения детей от 1 года до
5(6) лет (от 20 декабря 2012 года №557 приказ МОН РК)
4. Типовая программа воспитания и обучения в детском саду. – Алма-Ата: Мектеп,
1989.
5. Общеобразовательная программа предшкольной подготовки детей пяти (шести)
лет в условиях школы / под ред. Н.С. Татауровой, Г.А. Саймасаевой. – Астана, 1999.
6. Попова Т.Н. Дошкольная образовательная программа (воспитания, обучения и
развития детей 5 лет) / Т.Н. Попова, З.Д. Еденбаева. – Алматы: Алматыкитап, 2015.
7. От рождения до школы. Основная общеобразовательная программа дошкольного
образования / под ред. Н.Е. Вераксы, Т.С. Комаровой, М.А. Васильевой. – М.: МОЗАИКА-
СИНТЕЗ, 2016.
8. Учебная программа дошкольного образования / Министерство образования Ре-
спублики Беларусь. – 2-е изд. – Минск: НИО; Аверсэв, 2016.
3–4
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9. Программа воспитания и обучения детей старшего дошкольного возраста «Біз
мектепке барамыз» (от 5 до 6 лет) / авторы-составители: Н.Л. Татаурова, И.А. Тирская,
Т.А. Дрыгина, Г.Г. Корчевская, С.И. Шелипова, С.Г. Шакабаева, И.И. Митрофанова. – Ре-
спубликанский центр «Дошкольное детство», 2010.
10. «Балбөбек» бағдарламасы Ы. Алтынсарин атындағы Қазақ білім академиясы /
Б.Б. Баймұратова, М.С. Сəтімбекова жəне басқалар. – Алматы, 2006.
11. Дошкольная образовательная программа воспитания и обучения «Қарлығаш». –
Астана: Арман ПВ, 2008. – 176 с.
12. Программа воспитания, образования и развития детей дошкольного возраста
в условиях детского сада «Кайнар» / Т.Т. Доронова, К.А. Аймагамбетова и др. – Алматы:
Просвещение-Казахстан, 2006.
13. Методические рекомендации к программе воспитания и обучения в детском саду
/ сост. Л.В. Русскова. – М.: Просвещение, 2016.
14. Водопьянов Е.Н. Формирование начальных геометрических понятий у дошколь-
ников / Е.Н. Водопьянов // Дошкольное воспитание. – 2010. – №3.
15. Дидактические игры и упражнения но сенсорному воспитанию дошкольников:
пособие для воспитателя детского сада / под ред. Л.А. Венгера. – 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. –
М.: Просвещение, 1998.
16. Ерофеева Т.И. Математика для дошкольников: кн. для воспитателя дет. сада /
Т.И. Ерофеева, Л.Н. Павлова, В.П. Новикова. – М.: Просвещение, 2012.
17. Использование игровых методов при формировании у дошкольников математи-
ческих представлений. – СПб., 2015. – С. 47-62.
18. Колесникова Е.В. Математика для детей 6–7 лет: учебно-методическое пособие
к рабочей тетради «Я считаю до двадцати» / Е.В. Колесникова. – 3-е изд., дополн. и пере-
раб. – М.: ТЦ Сфера, 2014. – 96 с. (Математические ступеньки).
19. Яровая Э. Дидактические игры по математике для дошкольников: в 3-х книгах
- методика / Э. Яровая, В.А. Козлова. – М., 2016. (Серия Дошкольное воспитание и обуче-
ние).
20. Леушина А.М. Формирование элементарных математических представлений у
детей дошкольного возраста / А.М. Леушина. – М., 2014.
21. Фролова Р. Формирование умения решать логические задачи в дошкольном воз-
расте. Совершенствование процесса формирования элементарных математических пред-
ставлений в детском саду / Р. Фролова, В.И. Логинова. – СПб., 2013. – С. 24-37.
22. Метлина А.С. Занятия по математике в детском саду: (Формирование у до-
школьников элементарных матем. представлений): пособие для воспитателя дет. сада /
А.С. Метлина. – 2-е изд., доп. – М.: Просвещение, 2015.
23. Юрина А. Математика в детском саду / А. Юрина, А.С. Метлина. – М.: Просве-
щение, 2014.
24. Носова Е.А. Формирование умения решать логические задачи в дошкольном воз-
расте. Совершенствование процесса формирования элементарных математических пред-
ставлений в детском саду / Е.А. Носова. – СПб., 2013. – С. 24-37.
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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25. Тарунтаева Т.В. Развитие элементарных математических представлений до-
школьников / Т.В. Тарунтаева. – М.: Просвещение, 2016. – С. 37-40.
26. Алина Ф. Математика для малышей / Ф. Алина, Е.В. Сербина. – М.: Просвеще-
ние, 2012.
27. Смоленцева А.А. Сюжетно-дидактические игры с математическим содержани-
ем / А.А. Смоленцева. – М.: Просвещение, 2016.
28. Ботт И. Формирование элементарных математических представлений у до-
школьников / И. Ботт, А.А. Столяр. – М.: Просвещение, 2015.
29. Фидлер М. Математика уже в детском саду / М. Фидлер. – М.: Просвещение,
2011.
30. Sakenov J. et al. On the Students’ Ability to Use Digital Educational Resources /
J. Sakenov // INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL & SCIENCE EDUCA-
TION. – 2016. – №11. – Р. 4669-4679.
31. Sakenov J. et al. Studying Teachers’ and Parents’ attitudes Towards Educationally
Underperforming Adolescents – Students of General Education Schools / J. Sakenov // The New
Educational Review. – 2016. – №44(2). – Р. 62-72. Poland, Warsaw.
Қарапайым математикалық түсініктерді қалыптастыру барысы
А.М. Закал,
Гамбург университетінің профессоры, Гамбург қ., Германия
Д.Ж. Сакенов,
ПМПИ профессоры, Павлодар қ., Қазақстан.
Ф. Сейтғалиева,
Ғ. Қайырбеков ат. №2 мектеп-гимназия мұғалімі, Астана қ., Қазақстан.

Андатпа
Мақалада қарапайым математикалық түсініктерді қалыптастыру тұжырымдама мазмұнының
сипаттамасы ұсынылады. Мектеп жасына дейінгі балалардың қарапайым математикалық
түсініктерді қалыптастыру барысында дидактикалық ойындарды тиімді пайдалануы зерттелген.
Қарапайым математикалық түсініктерді қалыптастыруына ықпал ететін дидактикалық ойындар
кешені жасалған.
Тірек сөздер: барыс, қалыптастыру, қарапайым математикалық түсініктер.
The process of formation elementaru mathematical representations
A.M. Zakal,
Professor of the University of Hamburg, Hamburg city, Germany
D. Zh. Sakenov,
Professor of Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan,
3–4
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Farida Seytgalieva,
Teacher of School-gymnasium No. 2 of Gafu Kairbekov, Astana
Summary
The article provides a description of the content of the concept of the formation of elementary
mathematical concepts. The efficiency of the use of didactic games in the formation of elementary
mathematical concepts in preschool children. A complex of didactic games, contributing to the format
ion
of elementary mathematical concepts.
Keywords: the process of the formation of elementary mathematical concepts.
УДК 372.854.14
ТƏЖІРИБЕНІ ЖАҢАРТУ – ЗАМАН ТАЛАБЫ
Г.С. Байғұлова
Павлодар қаласы №5 жалпы орта білім беру мектебінің
қазақ тілі мен əдебиеті пəні мұғалімі, Павлодар қ., Қазақстан
Аңдатпа
Баяндамада қазақ тілі мен қазақ əдебиеті сабақтарында курста алған білімді
тəжірибе жүзінде қолданудың тиімділігі жөнінде айтылған. Қазақ тілі мен қазақ
əдебиеті сабақтарында жеті модульді ықпалдастыру арқылы оқушылардың танымдық,
сыни тұрғыдан ойлау қабілеттерін дамыту жөнінде айтылған.
Тірек сөздер: оқушылар, сыни тұрғыдан ойлау, модульдер, қазақ тілі мен əдебиеті
сабақтары.
7 модуль бойынша сабақтарды қызықты етіп өткізу үшін үнемі оқушыларды
сабақтан жақсы əсер алуына байланысты инновациялық технологияны қолдану
қажет. Бағдарлама оқушыларға қалай оқу керектігін үйретіп, соның нəтижесінде
еркін, өзіндік ой-пікірін жеткізе білетін ынталы сенімді болуды қалыптастырады.
Күнделікті сабақтарда сыныпта ынтымақтастық ахуал қалыпастыру білімге
құштарлықтарын, көңіл күйлерін жақсартуына оң əсерін береді. Ынтымақтаса
жұмыс істей отырып, олар бір нəтижеге жету үшін топ ережелерін сақтауды
үйренеді. Өз-өздерін реттеулері мен көшбасшылыққа ұмтылулары, дарындылары
айқындала бастады.
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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Оқыту мен оқытудағы жаңа тəсілдердің ішінде диалогтық оқыту тəсілі де
тиімділігін көрсетеді. Ол ұжымдық жəне өзара білім алмасуға жағдай туғызады.
Бұл тəсілмен оқыту топпен əңгімелесу, сұхбаттасу, «миға шабуыл» логикалық
сұрақ-жауап əдістері арқылы жүзеге асады. Білім беру жүйесіне жаңа инновациялық
технологияларды енгізу арқылы оқыту үрдісін жетілдіру, оқушының танымдық
қабілетін дамыту, саналы деңгейге көтеру – бүгінгі күнгі күрделі мəселе. Білімді
жеке тұлғаға бағыттау арқылы өзін-өзі таныған, ақыл-ойын жан-жақты дамытқан
өзіндік «Мендік» пікірі қалыптасқан оқушы тəрбиелеу мұғалімдер алдына тың
міндеттер жүктейді.
Бұл модульдердің көпшілігін бұрыннан сабағымызда пайдаланып жүрсек
те, тереңіне үңіліп, олардың өзіндік философиясын түсініп көрмеппіз. Əрине,
бұрынғы дəстүрлі əдістерді де жоққа шығаруға болмайды, əр тəсілдің өзіндік
артықшылықтары болады. Біз қолданып отырған бағдарламаның түрлі тəсілдерді
жинақтағанына қарамастан, сындарлы оқыту негіздері қамтылған. «Оқу мен жа-
зу арқылы сын тұрғысынан ойлауды дамыту» (СТО) бағдарламасының қазіргі
таңда білімді, білгенін өмірге пайдалана алатын шəкірт тəрбиелеуде алатын орны
ерекше. Білім берудің кешенді міндеттерін жəне мұғалімнің əртүрлі жағдайларда
жұмыс істейтіндігін ескерсек, тиімділік деген сөзге аса мəн беріп сол курста негізге
алынған жеті модуль туралы қысқаша тоқталайын.
ҚР Президенті Н.Ə. Назарбаевтың «Ұлт болашағы білімді ұрпақтың қолында,
ұрпақтың болашағы ұстаздардың қолында» – деген сөзінің өзі бүгінгі күннің
талаптарының ұстаздар мойынына артар жүгі аз еместігін көрсетеді. Жаһандану
қарсаңында білім беру нəтижесіне халықаралық талаптардың күшеюіне бай-
ланысты Елбасымыз «Ұлтымыздың əлеуетін оятуға жəне оны жүзеге асыруға
жағдай жасайтын интеллектуалды төңкеріс қажет» - деп ұстаздардың алдына ұлы
міндет жүктеп отыр. Осыған орай педагог қызметкерлердің біліктілігін арттыру
жұмыстары əлі де қарқын алып келеді. «Жүректе қайрат болмаса, ұйықтаған ойды
кім түртпек» деп данышпан Абайдың сөзін негізге алған педагогтер жұдырықтай
жүрегіндегі бар қайраттарын бойынан шығарып, оқыту мен оқудың сан түрлі
əдістерін ортаға салып, теорияны тəжірибемен ұштастыра біледі. Ойлану арқылы
білуге, тəжірибесін арттыруға,мақсатқа ұмтылдыратын жетелеуші күш бар.
Əлемдік білім беру жүйесі уақыт өткен сайын жылдам дамуда. Білім бе-
руде мұғалімдердің басты нысаны-оқушы. Ендеше алдымыздан білім нəрімен
сусындаған оқушыларымыз қандай болу керек..? Менің ойымша өзінің жəне
қоғамның көзқарасын барша жұртқа білдіре алатын, білімді, бəсекеге қабілетті,
шығармашыл, құзырлы жеке тұлға болу шарт. Ал оқушыларымызды осы деңгейге
жеткізу үшін біз сабақтарымызды қалай түрлендірер едік? Оқушының оқуға
қызығушылығын,мүмкіндігін қалай арттыра аламыз?
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Мектеп жұмысы мен оқушы жетістіктерін өрістетудегі негізгі тұлға –
мұғалім (Strong, Ward & Grant, 2011) Стронгтің бұл тұжырымымен мен келісемін,
себебі мұғалім оқу үрдісін ұйымдастырушы, оқушының дамуына өз септігін
тигізіп, бағыттаушы. Деңгейлік бағдарламаны игеру барысында «Қалай оқу
керектігіне үйрену» арқылы оқушылардың оқуға деген қызығушылықтарын
арттыруды көздедім. Оқыту – мұғалімдердің оқушыларға жасаған сыйы емес,
бұл құзыреттіліктер білім алу үшін оқушылардың өздері де оқу үдерісіне
белсенді қатысуын талап етеді. Сондықтан да өз тəжірбиемде негізінен деңгейлік
бағдарламалардан алған теорияма сүйенемін. Оқытудың əлеуметтік-мəдени теори-
ясын дамыту барысында Выготский оқушының өз бетімен қол жеткізе алмайтын
оқу деңгейін ересек немесе «маңызды» (ықпалды) адамның көмегімен қамтамасыз
етудегі рөлі туралы жазады . Яғни оқушы көп білетін адамдармен қарым-қатынас
жасайды. Бұл арада курс кезінде алған əдіс-тəсілдерді қолдана отырып бір-бірін
үйретіп, «бағдаршам», «автор орындығы», т. б. тəсілдермен оқыту қажет деп
білемін. Мұғалімге жеткізе алмаған ойын оқушы өз сыныптасына айта алады. Сол
себепті топпен, жұппен қарым-қатынас жасау арқылы сол ортаға бейімделе бастай-
ды. Оқушылар толығымен жаңа мəліметтерді бірін-бірі оқыту, толықтыру арқылы
игереді. Деңгейлік бағдарлама аясында оқушыларға қалай оқу керектігін оқыту
мен оқуда қолдану қажеттігін түсініп, жан-жақты игеріп, өзімнің іс-тəжірбиеме
енгізудемін. Осыған дейін барлық ақпаратты мұғалім өзі оқушы санасына жеткіз-
гісі келсе, баланың пікірін ескермей, уақыттың жетегіне кетіп, «мен» деген сөздің
аясында жұмыс істесе, ал қазір қарым-қатынасты нығайту арқылы жаңа өмірге де-
ген көзқарасы күрт өзгереді. Мұғалім аз сөйлеп, қажетті ақпарларды оқушының
өз бетімен қабылдауына жол ашылды. Мұғалім – бақылаушы, оқушының қандай
бағытта жұмыс жасап жатқанын қадағалап, кей жағдайда ғана өз ықпалын жасай-
ды. Выготский танымдық қабілетті дамытудағы əлеуметтік өзара əрекеттестіктің
маңызын бəрінен бірінші етіп қояды. Зерттеуші Хоу мен Мерсер (2010) бірлескен
іс-шаралар ақыл-ой дамуы мен оқуды, сондай-ақ қарым-қатынас жасау дағдыларын
арттыратынын көрсетті. Пиаженің танымдық өзгерістер балалар ересектердің
емес, өздерінің құрбы-құдастарының идеяларымен жəне көзқарастарымен қарсы
келіп қалған жағдайда орын алады деген болжамы бұл құбылыстың бірнеше
түсініктемесін ұсынады. Жоғарыдағы аталған ғалымдардың ой-пікірлері менің
өткізген сабақтарымда қолданыс тапты жəне басшылыққа ала отырып, көптеген
жетістіктерге қолым жетті. Осы жаңа тəсілдерді қолдануда «диалогтік оқытудың
маңызы» жəне «қалай оқу керектігін үйретуді» басшылыққа алдым. Оқыту мен
оқудағы оқушы мен мұғалімнің арасындағы байланыс ол диалог арқылы болары
сөзсіз. Мысалы, 9 сыныпта қазақ тілі сабағында
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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«Ғаламтор» деген тақырыпты өткен кезде, оқушылар ғаламтордың пайдасы
мен зияны бойынша топтарда талқылады. Ең алдымен жұптық жұмыс жасауды
ұсындым. Кейін жұппен талқылап болғаннан кейін топтың ішінде өзара пікірталас
жүреді. Себебі бірінің ойын бірі жалғастыруда немесе түсінбей қалған жайттарды
толықтыруда оқытудың осындай əдісі маңызды. Осы диалогтік оқыту сабақ бары-
сында тиімді қолданылғанда оқушылар өз ойларын, көзқарастарын білдіріп, еркін
сөйлеуіне, дамуына көмектеседі. «Диалогтік оқыту» модулі бір жағынан қызықты
болса, екінші жағынан барлық мəн-жайын түсінуді қажет ететін модульдердің
бірі. Оқу үрдісіне оқушылардың барлығы белсенді жұмыс жасауын қамтамасыз
ету үшін белсенді оқыту əдістерін кеңінен қолдану керек. Мысалы: рөлдік ойын-
дар, қадамды сұхбат, постер т. б. Бұл əдістер сыныптағы барлық оқушыларды
əрекетке тартып, ұжымда жұмыс жасауға үйретіп, тілдік қарым-қатынас орнатуға
септігін тигізеді. Осы орайда кейбір ұстанымдарға сүйену маңызды болып табы-
лады. Сонымен қатар бағалау модулі мені қызықтырды. Сондықтан да өзімнің
іс-тəжірибеме оқушылардың оқуға деген қызығушылығын арттыру мақсатында
сабақтарымда критериалды бағалауды енгіздім. Себебі критериалды бағалау
жүйесі оқушы мен мұғалім арасындағы байланысты орнатып, оқу үдерісі бары-
сында қателіктерді дұрыстауға мүмкіндік береді, оқушының оқуға деген ішкі
уəжін оятып, дамытатын құрал болып табылады. Критериалды бағалау оқушының
оқу нəтижелерін білім беру мақсаттары мен мазмұнына сəйкес келетін, білім бе-
ру үдерісіне қатысушылардың (оқушылар, мек теп əкімшілігі, ата-аналар, заңды
тұлғалар жəне т.б.) барлығына алдын ала таныс, ұжым талқысынан өткен, нақты
анықталған өлшемдер арқылы оқушылардың оқу жетістіктерін салыстыруға
негізделген үдеріс.
Критериалды бағалауды енгізудің мақсаты:
– Мектепте оқыту сапасын жоғарлату;
– Мектеп бітірушілердің білімін халықаралық стандартқа сəйкестендіру.
Критериалды бағалау жүйесінің тиімділігі мынада:
– Мұғалімге оқушының оқу үрдісіндегі іс-əрекетін объективті түрде
бағалауына мүмкіндік береді;
– Оқушыларға оқу үдерісі барысында туындаған қиындықтарды түсінуге,
шынайы бағаланғандығына көзі жетеді;
– Ата-аналар тарапынан түсінбеушіліктер орын алмайды. Себебі өз
баласының объективті бағаланғандығы туралы дəлелдемелермен қамтамасыз
етіледі. Осыған байланысты оқушылар арасында өзара түсіністік жəне ұжымдық
қарым-қатынас орнатылады. Оқушылардың өздеріне сенімсіздігі жойылады.
Критериалды бағалаудың арқасында оқуға деген мүмкіндіктерінің арттады.
3–4
, 2016 ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ ВЕСТНИК КАЗАХСТАНА
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Оқушылардың оқу жетістіктерін бағалауда бірқатар дағдылар қолданылады. Олар:
білу, түсіну, қолдану, анализ, синтез, бағалау.
Сабақта блум бойынша оқушыларға бағалау шкаласы беріледі, оқушылар
топта өздерін-өздері бағалайды. Егер балаға оның белгілі бір деңгейге жеткендігін
айтса, онда бұл оған үздік нəтижеге жету үшін не істеу керектігін түсінуге
көмектеспейді; бұл ретте егер баламен бірге оның жұмысында мұндай бағалауға
не əкелгенін жəне бағалау өлшемдерін түсіндіруге талдау жасаса, онда бұл балаға
өзінің нəтижесін жақсарту үшін кейін не істеу керектігін түсінуге мүмкіндік береді.
Сабақ барысында мен нені өзгерттім? Оқушылардың өздігінен білім алу дағдысын,
əр сабақта өз түйгендерін жазуды қалыптастырдым. Бұл жақсы жұмыс түрі, жақсы
бағалау əдісі. Өз тəжірибемде оқушылардың еркін сөйлеуі, ойын ашық айтуы, бір-
бірінің пікірін құрметтеуі үшін əрекет жасай отырып, сөз байлығын жəне ой өрісін
кеңейту үшін, шығармашылық қабілетін арттыру жəне пəнге қызығушылығын арт-
тыру үшін жұмыстар ұйымдастырдым, əрі қарай алдағы уақытта да жалғастыруды
басты міндеттерімнің бірі деп ойлаймын. Барлық сабақ барысында оқушылар дəл
осылай жұмыс жасағанын, пəнге деген қызығушылықтарын əлі де арттыру, сабақ
барысында жұмыс түрлерін өзгертіп отыруды мақсат етемін, осы курста алған
бар білімімді, күш жігерімді салуға тырысамын. Өз тəжірибемде нені дамыт-
тым? Оқушылардың сабақта еркін отырып, өздігінен білім алуларын, сыныптың
ұйымшылдығын, мəтінмен мозайкалық əдіс арқылы жұмыс жасауды дамыттым.
Видеоға, фотоларға түсірген кезде оқушылар бас кезінде қобалжығанмен, арты-
нан өздерін еркін ұстады. Жұппен, топпен жұмыс жасаған кезде сабақта жіберген
қателіктерін өз араларында түзеп отырды, жақсы түсініп, талдап, бағалай білді.
Əсіресе бір-біріне қолдау жасап, ойларын ашық айтқаны, кері байланыс жасағаны
ұнады. Олар топқа бөлініп, жаттығуларды орындау барысында, жетістіктеріне
жеткендеріне жəне сол топтағы нашар оқитын баланың өзі белсенділік танытып,
жақсы көрінгеніне, ортаға шығып дұрыс жауап айтқанына өте қуанды. Өздерінің
жетістіктерін өздері көріп, бағалады. Дəл осындай қарқынмен өткен сабақтарымда
үндемей отырған оқушылар болған жоқ. Менің алдағы уақытқа қойған жоспарым:
мектепішінде, мектепаралық, желелік қоғамдастықта ұстаздармен тəжірибе алма-
су. Сонымен қатар болашақта барлық сабақтарымда оқушылардың мүмкіндігін
арттыру мақсатында критериалды бағалауды енгізу. Сонымен қатар тəлімгермен /
мұғалімнен кеңес / өздігімен талдау / жоғарыдан көмек жəне өзімнің қасымдағы
əріптестерімнің, сынып жетекшілерінің, ата-аналардың көмегін күтемін. Себебі
мектеп-мұғалім – оқушы-ата-ана бірлескенде ғана жұмыс сапалы болады, əрі
нəтижеге жету байқалады. Блум таксономиясымен сабақ жоспарлауды əлі де
жалғастырып, курста алған білімімді əр сабағымда қолданып, балалардың білімін
тереңдетіп, жақсы жетістіктерге жетуді мақсат етемін. Білім саласындағы қазіргі
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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проблемалардың бірі өскелең ұрпақта, өзіндік даму, нəтижеге бағытталған білім
беру. Оқушылардың өзін-өзі тануға, дамытылуына жағдай жасау кез келген
мұғалімнің қолынан келе бермейді. Оқу процесінде əлі күнге дейін оқушыларға
Вербальді монологикалы əсер ету сақталған. Жас ұрпақтың бойында дамуға де-
ген танымдық мақсатын қызметі тек оқушының өзіндік ойлау белсенділігі
негізінде ғана іске асады. Ол процесс сабақты инноватикалық тəсілдермен
түрлендіргенде ғана жүзеге асады. Алайда, кез келген білім мекемелеріндегі
инноватикалық процестер түрлі объективті себептерге байланысты бірден пайда
болып, іске асып, дамып жəне өзінің нəтижесін бермейді. Ол үшін оқу процесінің
басқару құрылымын модернизациялау қажет. Озық тəжірибені ендіру жəне
қарқындату түрлі инновациялық инициациялауға байланысты. Мектеп үшін білім
мазмұнының жаңартудағы инновациялық жəне педагогикалық технологиялар-
ды ендіру, мониторинг бағдарламалары мен оқулықтардағы əдістемелік аппарат-
ты эксперттеу күнделікті жағдайға айналды. Қорыта айтқанда, заман талабына
сай оқушыларымызды білім нəрімен сусындату. Озық елдегі білім беру жүйесінің
қаймағын өзіміздің білім беру реформасына енгізу. Деңгейлік бағдарламалар бой-
ынша алған білімізді орынды қолдану. Сөзімнің соңында егер мектеп алдында
əр баланың қабілетін дамыту сияқты əлеуметтік міндет тұрса, барлық пəндерде
жаңа технологияны тиімді пайдалану арқылы білім алушының өз белсенділігін
ояту, біліктілікті арттыру жағдайында рефлексивті кері байланыс орнату сияқты
мəселелердің орындалуы тиіс дегім келеді.
«Ой артынан ой туар, желге мінсе жеткізбес» деген тағы да хакім Абайдың
сөзі ойға оралады. Ойды ой қозғап курс барысында үйренгеніміз, қоржынымызға
салған əдіс-тəсілдеріміз көп болды. «Тембилдинг», «Кейстер əдісі», «Кинометафо-
ра», «Модерация», «Социометрия» т.б терминдер біздің іс-əрекет барысында ба-
рынша қолданатын сөздеріміздің біріне айналып келеді.
Ғ. Мүсірепов айтқандай «Есту бар, білу бар, түсіну бар, қорыту бар». Біз де
өз естігенімізді, білгенімізді, түсінгенімізді, қорытқанымызды өмірде қолдануға,
алдағы жауапкершілікті сезініп, басқаларға жол сілтеуге барынша тырысуы-
мыз керек. Өйткені болашақ бізден ұлы істерді талап етеді. Педагогикалық реф-
лексияда «рефлексияланушы мұғалім – бұл ойлаушы, талдаушы, өз тəжірибесін
зерттеуші педагог» делінген. Өзін-өзі дамытуға жəне өзін-өзі жетілдіруге деген
жалықпайтын қажеттілігі бар «өз кəсібінің мəңгілік оқушысы» (Д. Дьюи) болып
қала беретініміз анық.
Білім – ел қазынасы, халқымыздың білімділігі – ел байлығы. Уақыт талабы-
на сай білім беру үшін жаңаша əдістерін қолдануымыз қажет. Оқушылардың ала-
тын негізгі білімдерінің сапасы оқыту дəрежесіне тəуелді. Сондықтан əрбір ұстаз
өз ісінің шебері əрі жан-жақты ізденгіш əрі жаңашыл болып, оқушының білімге
3–4
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ықыласы мен қызығуын арттыру мақсатында сабақтың құрылымы мен əдіс-
тəсілдерін өзгертіп отыруы міндетті. Мұғалімдер өз тəжірибесін үнемі жетілдіріп
отыруы тиіс. Елбасымыздың «Еліміздің ертеңі – бүгінгі жас ұрпақтың қолында,
ал жас ұрпақтың тағдыры – ұстаздардың қолында» деген сөзін əрдайым естен
шығармайық.
Əдебиеттер
1. Педагогикалық шеберлік орталығы Кембридж Университетінің білім беру
Факультетімен бірселіп əзірлеген Қазақстан Республикасы педагог қызметкерлірінің
біліктілігін арттыоу курстарының деңгейлі бағдарламасына арналған глоссарий: оқу-
əдістемелік құрал. – Астана: «Назарбаев Зияткерлік мектетері» ДББҰ Педагогикалық
шеберлік орталығы, 2012.
2. Мұғалімдерге арналған нұсқаулық. Үшініші (базалық деңгей). 2013 ж.
3. Ұстаз журналы. 2015 ж. №5.
Обновление опыта – требование времени
Г.С. Байғулова
учитель казахского языка и литературы средней школы №5,
г. Павлодар, Казахстан
Аннотация
В данной статье рассматривается эффективность использования знаний с курсов на уроках
казахского языка и литературы. В статье рассматриваются возможности 7 модулей на на уроках ка-
захского языка и литературы в плане развития у школьников познавательных способностей, крити-
ческого мышления
Ключевые слова: учащиеся, критическое мышление, модули, уроки казахского языка и лите-
ратуры.
Renewal of experience – requirement of time
G.S. Baygulova
teacher of the Kazakh language and literature secondary school number 5,
Pavlodar, Kazakhstan
Summary
This article discusses the effectiveness of the use of knowledge with courses in the Kazakh language

and literature lessons. The article deals with the possibility of 7 modules on the lessons of the Ka
zakh
language and literature in terms of the development of students' cognitive abilities, critical think
ing.
Keywords: students, critical thinking, modules, lessons of the Kazakh language and literature.
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
46
УДК 372.854.15
ОҚУШЫНЫҢ ЗЕРТТЕУШІЛІК
ЖƏНЕ ІСКЕРЛІК ҚАБІЛЕТТЕРІН АРТТЫРУ
A.M. Закал
Гамбург университеті, Гамбург қ., Германия
Г.Ж. Рахметулина
Комсомол жалпы орта білім беретін мектеп,
Екібастұз қ., Қазақстан
К. Омарова
Көлік жəне коммуникация колледжі,
Павлодар қ., Қазақстан
Андатпа
Мақалада бүгінгі оқушының зерттеушілік жəне іскерлік қабілеттерін артты-
ру мəселесі қарастырылады. Мақалада бүгінгі оқушының зерттеушілік жəне іскерлік
қабілеттерін арттыру тиімділігі ашылады.
Тірек сөздер: бүгінгі, оқушының, зерттеушілік, іскерлік, қабілеттерін, арттыру.
Бастауыш мектеп – оқушы тұлғасының, санасының дамуы қуатты жүретін,
ерекше құнды, қайталанбас кезең. Сондықтан бастауыш мектеп – үздіксіз білім
берудің алғашқы басқышы, қиын да жауапты жұмыс. Бастауыш мектеп балаға білім
беріп қана қоймай, оны жалпы дамытады, сөйлеуге, қоршаған орта туралы дұрыс
көзқарас қалыптастыруға, ойын дұрыс айтуға, дəлелді сөйлеуге үйретеді. Бүгінгі
қоғам талабы бойынша оқушы тек қана мұғалімнен білім алып қоймайды, соны-
мен қатар өзі ізденіс үстінде жүріп əр түрлі пікірталасқа қатысып, өз ой-пікірлерін
толық жеткізіп, тəжірибе қолдана білулері керек. Зерттеуші білім алушы өзінің
табиғатынан зерттеуге бейім келеді. Білуге құмарлық, бақылау жасауға талпы-
ныс, өзінше зерттеу жүргізу баланың балалығымен бірге жүретін үрдіс. Зерттеу,
іздену белсенділігі – баланың жаратылысына тəн табиғи құбылыс. Зерттеушілік
əдісін қолдану қажетті оқушының білім алу үрдісінде қоршаған ортасына
қызығушылығымен, сүйіспеншілігімен қараумен түсіндіріледі. Оқушы өз бетінше
зерттеу жүргізу арқылы қоршаған ортасын тани алады, жаңа білімді дайын күйінде
3–4
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қабылдамай, өз зерттеуі арқылы алады [1, 5 б.]. Қазіргі кезде оқушы дарындылығын
арттыру үшін мектеп өмірінде көптеген нəтижелі жұмыстар ұйымдастырылуда.
Баланы оқыту мен тəрбиелеуге түрлі ізденіс жұмыстары арқылы дарындылықты
аңықтап, олардың дұрыс қалыптасуына жағдай жасау керек.Оқушының ғылымға
құштарлығын, бейімділігін қалыптастыру үшін бастауыш сыныптардан ба-
стау алған өзіндік ізденіс жұмысқа үйрету жүргізіліп келеді. Елбасының «Жаңа
əлемдегі-жаңа Қазақстан» атты халыққа жолдауында атап көрсеткендей, білімді
де білімпаз, шығармашылық жігері мол жеке тұлғаның қалыптасып, дамуын
көздейді.осы негізгі басшылыққа ала отырып, əрбір ұстаз баланың жан-жақты да-
мып жетілуіне өз үлестерін қосуда. Бұл талаптардың нəтижесінде бастауыш сынып
ұстаздары арасында жаңа көзқарастағы жаңашыл шығармашылық топ құрылды.
Бастауыш сыныптарда құрылған «Кіші ғылыми қоғамның» өзіндік бағыт-
тары бар. 3–4 сынып оқушылары ғылыми қоғамның мүшесі бола отырып, өмірге,
ортаға, қоғамға деген қызығушылығын оятып, білімін жан-жақты дамыта алады
[2, 36 б.]. Кіші ғылыми қоғамның өзіне тəн елтаңбасы мен əнұраны, атауы бола-
ды. Кіші ғылыми қоғамның əрбір мүшесі өздеріне жүктелген зерттеу жұмыстары
толық зерттеп, бақылай отырып, оның бағыты мен жоспарына сай жүргізіп келеді.
Бастауыш мектеп оқушысының оқуын, ой еңбегін, ойынын ұйымдастыра отырып,
мұғалім оның дамуына ықпал етеді. Ғылыми зерттеу жұмысымен шұғылданған
оқушылар жоғарғы сыныптарға көшкенде осы жұмыстарын толықтырып, ғылыми
жобаға қатысады. Дарынды оқушылар арасында құрылған кіші ғылыми ізденіс,
зерттеушілік жұмыс оқушылардың білім дағдыларын қалыптастыруға, белгілі
бір ғылым саласында өз білімдерін жетілдіре, толықтыра түсулеріне үлкен ықпал
етеді. Бастауыш сыныптан бастап оқушы үлкен аудиторияларда өз ойларын еркін
сөйлеп жеткізе алуға дағдаланса, шешендік қабілеттері артып, тілдік қорлары
кеңейе түсері сөзсіз [3]. Олай болса, оқытудың дуальды жүйесі ертеңгі мамандардың
кəсіби əлеуетін жоғарылатуға, дайындықтарын жетілдіруге зор ықпал етпек. Білім
берудің бұл бағытының тағы бір ерекшелігі тараптардың қарым-қатынасы тепе-
теңдік жəне əділдік принциптері негізінде құрылады. Əлеуметтік серіктестікке
қатысушылар оқыту нəтижесіне ғана емес, сонымен қатар оқытудың мазмұнына,
оның ұйымдастырылуына да мүдделі. Тұтастай алғанда бұл бастаманың өз
мəнінде жолға қойылуы үшін бүгінгі таңда дуальды жүйенің қазақстандық моделін
жасақтап, болашақ кадрларды осы модель бойынша даярлайтын кəсіпорындар мен
білім беру ұйымдарына арналған ереже жасақтаған жөн. Бұл ретте жергілікті билік
өкілдерінің ықпалы болуы керектігін ескерген дұрыс. Сол секілді болашақ маман-
дар үшін кəсіпорындарда жұмыс орнын қарастырып, тəжірибеден өту мəселелерін
шешу де жүйені дамытатын алғышарттар екені анық [4, 28 б.]. «Ал, дуальды
оқыту жүйесін жүзеге асырудағы əлеуметтік серіктестіктер ықпалы қандай бо-
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
48
луы керек?» деген сауал туындауы заңды. Олар оқу орнына қандай жəне қанша
маман дайындау туралы ақпарат беріп, оқу орнына маман дайындауға өз талап-
тарын қояды. Сонымен қатар, оқу орнымен бірлесе отырып, оқу-материалдық
құжаттарын дайындауға қатысып, оқушыларды оқу жəне өндірістік тəжірибеден
өткізуге жағдай жасауы қажет.
Кесте 1 – Жобалау тəсілмен ұйымдастыру, оқушылардың шығармашылық негізгі бөлімі
Рефераттық
Тандалған тақырып бойынша мəлімет жинау жəне жеткізу
Жобалау
Алдын ала болжап қойған нəтиженің сипаттамасымен қорытынды-
лары.
Зертханалық-практикалық
Алдың ала болжап қойған нəтижесінің зертханалық қойылымы.
Натуристік-табиги сипаттық
Қаңдай да бір əдістеме бойынша жиналған нəтижелерді бекіту
Зерттеушілік
Оқылатын пəн бойынша жаңа білімдер игеру(өзі жинаған жəне
талдау жасаған материалдардің негізінде)
Кесте 2 – Зерттеу мен жобалау
Ажырату параметрі
Зерттеу
Жобалау
Уақыт категориясына
қатынасы
Қысқа мерзімді
Қазіргі жəне болашаққа байла-
нысты
Жемісі
Білім
Жоба
Нəтижелік критериялар
Ақиқаттылық
Іске асыру
Зерттеліп отырған құбылыс туралы білімдерің толығуы балаға өзінің ал-
дына жаңа, күрделі мақсаттар қоюына түрткі болды. Демек, балалар зерттеу
əрекетіндегі маңызды жайт-баланың өзі қойған жаңа мақсаттар өндеу, жинақтау
жəне өзгерту арқылы жүзеге асырылады. Сондықтан, жасап көру мен қателер
жіберу-балалар зерттеу əрекетінің басты да маңызды компоненті. Жаңа мəліметтер
алуға бағытталған ойлау процесі əрекеттің бұрыннан таныс тəсілдерін қолданып
қоймай, баланың қабілеттері мен ерекшеліктеріне байланысты жаңа тəсілдерді
қолдануды білдіреді. Əрекеттің жаңа тəсілдерін құрудың қажеттілігі іздеу əрекеті
мен қателесу, жасап көру секілді əрекеттерді де талап етеді. Бұл процесте бала-
ларда объектілердің жасырын жақтары мен қасиеттерін анықтау мақсатында жаңа
тəсілді іздеу қабілеті қалыптасады. Іздеу əрекетінің дамуы барысында балалардың
қате жасаудан қорқуы жойылып, олар өздерінің кейінгі іс-əрекеттерін реттеу үшін
жаңа əрі қажетті ақпаратты таңдай білуге үйренеді [6]. Зерттеушілік жұмыстар
мен тапсырмалар оқушылардың танымдық жəне эстетикалық қажеттіліктерін
3–4
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бір мезгілде қанағаттандыруға септігін тигізеді. Зерттеушілік қабілеттің бірден
қалыптаспайтындығы белгілі, оқытудың алғашқы күнінен-ақ, бұл мəселе
педагогикалық ұжымының назарында болуы тіис. Бастауыш мектеп курсының
əрбір пəні оқушының зерттеушілік дағдыларын қалыптастыруға үлес қоса алады.
Зерттеушілік қабілет шығармашылықтың бір формасы болғандықтан,
оқушылардың зерттеушілік қабілеттерінің дамуы туралы мəселе олардың
шығармашылық қабілеттерінің дамуы жайлы келелі мəселенің құрамды бөлігі бо-
лып табылады.
Зерттеушілік əрекет екі нəтиже көрсетеді:
1. Педагогикалық нəтиже-оқушының жаңа білім, білік, дағдылар мен
зерттеушілік əрекетінің тəсілдерін, шығармашылық қабілеттерін дамыту процесі,
2. Оқушының нəтижесі-ақыл-ой еңбегінің нəтижесінде құрылған макет, жо-
ба, баяндама т.б. кез келген жағдайда мұғалім ұсынылған талаптар мен туындаған
жағдайларға байланысты көрсеткіштерді өз бетінше анықтауға болады.
Қорыта келе, ақпараттық технологиялар, ғылыми-техникалық даму кезеңінде
жан-жақты, білімді, ақпаратты тез қабылдайтын, алған білімді дұрыс қолдана
білетін мамандар қажеттігіне бəріміздің көзіміз жетіп отыр. Еліміздің əрі қарай
өркендеп, дамуына да жаңа көзқарасты ғалымдар керек. Сол заман талабына жа-
старды тəрбиелеуде бастауыш сыныптан бастап оқушыларды оқыту, үйретудің
жаңа көзқарастары керектігі туындап тұрғаны сөзсіз. Оқушыларды ғылыми-
зерттеу жұмыстарына қатыстыру арқылы жаңалық ашуға, өз бетінше шешім
қабылдауға, баяндама жасауға үйренеді.
Оқушының интелектуалдық білігі мен коммуникативтік мəдениеті дамиды.
Өз ойын ашық жеткізіп, сөзін дəлелдей алатын қабілетке көтеріледі. Дұрыс сөйлеуі
қалыптасып, жүйелі зерттеуге төселеді. Осындай жұмыстардың нəтижесінде
болашаққа балалар зерттеу жұмыстарын жалғастырып, білімге құштар болып,
болашаққа ғалымдар қатарын толықтыратынына сенімдімін.
Əдебиеттер
1. Назарбаев Н.Ə. «Қазақстан – 2050 стратегиясы». – Астана, 2013.
1. Жексенбаева Ү.Б. Мен зерттеуге үйренемін / Ү.Б. Жексенбаева. – Астана, 2006.
2. Герасимов А.И. Структура научного исследования. Философский анализ познава-
тельной деятельности в науке / А.И. Герасимов. – М.: Мысль, 1985.
3. Əбенбаев С.Ш. Педагогика: оқу құралы / С.Ш. Əбенбаев. – Алматы: Дарын, 2001.
4. Əбенбаев С.Ш. Тəрбие теориясы мен əдістемесі: оқу құралы / С.Ш. Əбенбаев. –
Алматы: Дарын, 2004.
5. Мырзалинова А.Ж., Ақышева Б.Т., Долдина С.Қ. // «Педагогика мəселелері» жур-
налы. – 2013. – №1. – 10-13 бет.
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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6. Журавлева О.С. Исследовательская деятельность в начальной школе / О.С. Жу-
равлева. – Москва, сборник лекции по начальной школе.
7. ҚР білім туралы заңы.
8. Қазақстан Республикасында білім беруді дамытудың 2011–2020 жылдарға
арналған мемлекеттік. – Астана, 2010. – 148 б.
Повышение исследовательских и деловых способностей учащихся
A.M. Закал,
Гамбургский университет, г. Гамбург, Германия
Г.Ж. Рахметулина
Комсомольская средняя школа, г. Экибастуз, Казахстан
Куралай Омарова
Колледж транспорта и коммуникации, г. Павлодар, Казахстан
Аннотация
В статье рассматриваются способы повышения исследовательских и деловых способностей
учащихся. В статье рассматривается эффективность повышения исследовательских и деловых спо-
собностей учащихся.
Ключевые слова: современное, повышение, исследовательских, деловых, способностей, уча-
щихся.
Increase research and business skills of students
A.M. Zakal
University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
G.Zh. Rahmetulina
Komsomolsk high school, Ekibastuz, Kazakhstan
Kuralay Omarova
Transport and Communications College, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan.
Summary
This article discusses ways to enhance research and business abilities of pupils. The article discus
ses
the effectiveness of increasing research and business abilities of pupils.
Keywords: modern, promotion, research, business, skills, students.
3–4
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УДК 372.854
АКТИВИЗАЦИЯ ПОЗНАВАТЕЛЬНОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ ДЕТЕЙ
ПОСРЕДСТВОМ ДИДАКТИЧЕСКОЙ ИГРЫ
Г.К. Кудушева
магистрант Инновационного Евразийского университета,
г. Павлодар, Казахстан
Е.М. Раклова
профессор Инновационного Евразийского университета,
г. Павлодар, Казахстан
К. Омарова
преподаватель Колледжа транспорта и коммуникации,
г. Павлодар, Казахстан
Аннотация
В данной статье рассматривается проблема активности детей. Показана роль
дидактических игр как средства активизации деятельности детей. В статье речь идет
об использовании дидактических игр на уроках, которые способствуют развитию позна-
вательных интересов, мыслительных процессов и положительной мотивации обучения
школьников.
Ключевые слова: игра, дидактическая игра, игровая деятельность, классифика-
ция игр.
Закон «Об образовании» Республики Казахстан и соответствующие законо-
дательные акты определяют принципы государственной политики в области обра-
зования, обеспечивают реализацию конституционных прав граждан на образова-
ние, регулируют отношения между субъектами образовательного процесса, уста-
навливают их права, обязанности, полномочия и ответственность. Общей задачей
образования является превращение его из средства передачи знаний в средство об-
щего интеллектуального развития и формирования культуры учащихся [1, с. 2].
Проблема активности личности в обучении – одна из актуальных на сегод-
няшний день в образовательной практике. Отмечая равнодушие у обучаемых к
знаниям, нежелание учиться, низкий уровень развития познавательных интересов,
педагоги пытаются конструировать более эффективные формы, модели, способы,
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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условия обучения. Проблема активности личности в обучении как ведущий фак-
тор достижения цели обучения, общего развития личности требует принципиаль-
ного осмысления важнейших элементов обучения (содержания, форм, методов) и
утверждает в мысли, что стратегическим направлением активизации обучения яв-
ляется не увеличение объема передаваемой информации, не усиление и увеличе-
ние числа контрольных мероприятий, а создание дидактических и психологиче-
ских условий осмысленности учения, включения в него учащегося на уровне не
только интеллектуальной, но и личностной, и социальной активности.
Разработкой данной проблемы в зарубежной педагогике занимались Ф.И. Ян-
кович, Х. Паркхерст, Ч. Фриз, А. Нил, в русской педагогике – А. Макаренко,
Л.В. Занков, А.В. Полякова, П.И. Пидкасистый, в Казахстане занимались такие
видные деятели педагогической науки, как М. Дулатов, А. Сембаев, Н. Кульжано-
ва и т. д.
В период младшего школьного возраста происходят существенные измене-
ния в психике ребёнка; дети усваивают новые знания, новые представления об
окружающем мире; перестраиваются сложившиеся у детей ранее житейские по-
нятия; а школьное мышление способствует развитию теоретического мышления в
доступных учащимся этого возраста формах.
Благодаря развитию нового уровня мышления происходит перестройка всех
остальных психических процессов. Именно перестройка всей познавательной сфе-
ры в связи с развитием мышления составляет основное содержание умственного
развития в младшем школьном возрасте. Как показывают многочисленные иссле-
дования учёных, развитие мышления способствует возникновению к концу млад-
шего школьного возраста важнейших новообразований: рефлексии, которая пре-
ображает не только познавательную деятельность учащихся, но и характер их от-
ношения к окружающим людям и самим себе, произвольности и способности к са-
морегуляции.
Игра – наиболее доступный для детей вид деятельности, способ переработки
полученных из окружающего мира впечатлений. В игре ярко проявляются особен-
ности мышления и воображения ребенка, его эмоциональность, активность, раз-
вивающаяся потребность в общении. Интересная игра повышает умственную ак-
тивность ребенка, и он может решить более трудную задачу, чем на занятии. Игра
в сочетании с наблюдениями, беседами, чтением и другими занятиями, дает хо-
рошие результаты. Играя, дети учатся применять свои знания и умения на прак-
тике, пользоваться ими в разных условиях [2]. Это самостоятельная деятельность,
в которой дети вступают в общение со сверстниками. Их объединяет общая цель,
совместные усилия к ее достижению, общие переживания. Игровые переживания
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оставляют глубокий след в сознании ребенка и способствуют формированию до-
брых чувств, благородных стремлений, навыков коллективной жизни.
Из этого следует, что использование дидактических игр на уроках является
неотъемлемой частью учебного процесса.
В современных условиях гуманизации образования существующие теории и
технологии массового обучения должны быть направлены на формирование силь-
ной личности, способной жить и работать в непрерывно меняющемся мире, спо-
собной смело разрабатывать собственную стратегию поведения, осуществлять
нравственный выбор и нести за него ответственность, т.е. личности саморазвиваю-
щейся и самореализующейся, самоактуализирующейся.
В школе особое место занимают такие формы занятий, которые обеспечива-
ют активное участие на уроке каждого ученика, повышают авторитет знаний и ин-
дивидуальную ответственность школьников за результаты учебного труда. Эти за-
дачи можно успешно решать через использование игр как средства активизации
познавательной деятельности учащихся [3].
По мнению Л.С. Выготского, игра является первым проявлением творческого
отношения детей к миру. Игра будит воображение, создает радостное настроение,
дает возможность вызвать активную работу мысли. Творческие процессы, полага-
ет он, лучше всего выражаются в играх детей, в них дети представляют примеры
самого подлинного творчества. «Игра ребенка – писал он, – не есть простое воспо-
минание о пережитом, но творческая переработка пережитых впечатлений, комби-
нирование их и построение из них новой действительности...» [4].
Игра имеет большое образовательное значение, т. к. она тесно связана с обу-
чением на занятиях, с наблюдениями повседневной жизни. В настоящее время зна-
чимость игры повышается из-за перенасыщенности современного школьника ин-
формацией. Во всем мире неизменно расширяется предметно-информационная
среда. Телевидение, видео, радио, компьютерные сети обрушивают на учащихся
огромный объем информации. Актуальной задачей школы становится развитие са-
мостоятельной оценки и отбора получаемой информации. Одной из форм обуче-
ния, развивающей подобные умения, является дидактическая игра, способствую-
щая практическому использованию знаний, полученных на уроке и во внеурочное
время [5].
Использование дидактических игр на уроках способствует развитию по-
знавательных интересов, мыслительных процессов и положительной мотивации
обучения школьников. С одной стороны, игра предоставляет личности сиюминут-
ную радость, служит удовлетворению актуальных потребностей. С другой сторо-
ны, игра направлена в будущее, так как в ней либо прогнозируются или моделиру-
ются жизненные ситуации, либо закрепляются свойства, качества, умения, способ-
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
54
ности, необходимые личности для выполнения социальных, профессиональных,
творческих функций.
Одно из эффективных средств развития интереса к учебному предмету, на-
ряду с другими методами и приёмами, используемыми на уроках, – дидактическая
игра. Дидактическая игра – это специально создаваемые или приспособленные для
целей обучения игры. Игре, как одному из основных видов деятельности в жизни
маленьких учеников, отведено необходимое место в учебно-воспитательном про-
цессе. Она используется в качестве одного из способов обучения различным учеб-
ным предметам в начальной школе. Ещё К.Д. Ушинский советовал включить эле-
менты занимательности, игровые моменты в учебный труд учащихся для того,
чтобы процесс познания был продуктивным [5].
Дидактическая игра (игра обучающая) – это вид деятельности, занимаясь ко-
торой, дети учатся. Это является утверждённым в педагогической практике и тео-
рии средством для расширения, углубления и закрепления знаний, важным сред-
ством воспитания умственной активности учащихся. Она вызывает у детей живой
интерес к процессу познания и помогает им усвоить любой учебный материал.
Дидактическая игра – это ещё и игровая форма обучения, которую, в основ-
ном, применяют при обучении младших школьников.
В педагогической теории накоплен значительный материал о возможностях
игры в процессе обучения, развития и воспитания. Исследователи едины во мне-
нии о том, что в игре в наибольшей степени проявляются индивидуальные особен-
ности личности [6].
В современной психологической и педагогической науке встречаются раз-
личные классификации игр.
Классификация игр:
а) по содержанию (игры, связанные с поиском по аналогии, согласно предло-
женным алгоритмам и в заданных пределах; игры, связанные с переносом знаний,
опыта и способов деятельности в новые, нестандартные ситуации; игры, связанные
с исследовательским и прогностическим поиском, перевоплощением и созданием
принципиально нового на основе фантазии, воображения и поиска);
б) по видам (сюжетно-ролевые, театрализованные, интеллектуальные, ком-
пьютерные);
в) по форме организации участников (индивидуальные, парные, групповые,
массовые);
г) по месту действия (на уроке, на игровом поле, игры за столом, игры на
эстраде, на сцене, в зале, в доме и т. д.) [7].
Игровая деятельность влияет на развитие внимания, памяти, мышления, во-
ображения, всех познавательных процессов, учит создавать обобщенные типич-
3–4
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ные образы, мысленно преобразовывать их. Ценность игровой деятельности за-
ключается и в том, что она обладает наибольшими возможностями для формиро-
вания детского общества. Она позволяет детям самостоятельно создавать те или
иные формы общения.
Игра является той формой организации жизнедеятельности младшего школь-
ника, в условиях которой учитель может, применяя различные методы, формиро-
вать личность ребенка, ее общественную направленность, активизировать позна-
вательную деятельность.
Проведенное экспериментальное исследование особенностей развития мыш-
ления и уровня их сформированности у детей младшего школьного возраста по-
зволило сделать следующие выводы.
1) Благодаря проведенным исследованиям и анализу практической деятель-
ности, с использованием дидактической игры, как средства обучения, можно гово-
рить о том, что для развития мышления необходимо стимулировать деятельность
школьников с помощью дидактической игры. Игра позволяет воспитывать жела-
ние и умение учиться, создает такой эмоциональный фон урока, который помога-
ет детям лучше и глубже усвоить содержание материала, создать рабочую, разви-
вающую атмосферу.
2) Игра повышает уровень развития познавательных процессов таких, как,
например, взаимопомощь, взаимовыручка, поддержка, чувство товарищества, а
также психические процессы – мышление, память, внимание, речь, воображение
и т. д.
3) Положительно дидактические игры влияют на развитие школьников, им
предоставляется возможность работать в группе, решать различные учебные зада-
чи, высказывать свое мнение, анализировать ситуацию, искать пути решения. Сле-
довательно, игры способствуют развитию мышления.
В процессе игры воспитываются и нравственные качества, работая в груп-
пе, ребенок учится общаться, т.е. развиваются его коммуникативные способности,
учится помогать одноклассникам, что воспитывает чувство товарищества, взаимо-
помощи. Игры положительно влияет на формирование и сплочение коллектива.
Таким образом, игра связана со всеми сторонами воспитательной и образова-
тельной работы начальной школы. В ней отражаются и развиваются знания и уме-
ния, полученные на занятиях, закрепляются правила поведения.
Игровая деятельность – это ведущий вид деятельности детей, характеризую-
щийся в основном воспроизведением в специфической форме действий и отноше-
ний взрослых.
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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Список литературы
1. Пидкасистый П.И. Технология игры в обучении и развитии / П.И. Пидкасистый,
Ж.С. Хайдаров. – М.: Роспед агентство, 1996. – 268 с.
2. Ахметова Н.К. Игра как процесс обучения / Н.К. Ахметова, Ж.С. Хайдарова. –
Алма-Ата: Знание Каз ССР, 1985. – 40 с.
3. Леонтьев А.Н. Деятельность. Сознание. Личность / А.Н. Леонтьев. – 2-е изд. –
М.: Политиздат, 1977.
4. Выготский Л.С. Игра и ее роль в психологическом развитии ребенка. Вопросы пси-
хологии / Л.С. Выготский. – М.: Просвещение, 1966.
5. Ушинский К.Д. Человек как предмет воспитания / К.Д. Ушинский. – ФАИР-
ПРЕСС, 2004. – 576 с.
6. Педагогическое наследие: Я.А. Коменский, Д. Локк, Ж.Ж. Руссо, И.Г. Песталоцци /
сост.: В.М. Кларин, А.Н. Джуринский. – М.: Педагогика, 1989. – 416 с.
7. Селевко Г.К. Современные образовательные технологии: учеб. пособие для пед. ву-
зов и ин-тов повышения квалификации / Г.К. Селевко. – М.: Народное образование, 1998. –
256 с.
Дидактикалық ойын арқылы балалардың танымдық қызметін арттыру
Г.К. Кудушева
Инновациялық Еуразия университеті магистранты, Павлодар қ., Қазақстан
Е.М. Раклова
Инновациялық Еуразия университеті профессоры, Павлодар қ., Қазақстан
К. Омарова
Көлік жəне коммуникация колледжі, Павлодар қ., Қазақстан
Андатпа
Мақалада балалардың белсенділігі мəселесі қарастырылған. Балалардың белсенділігін артты-
ру құралы ретінде, дидактикалық ойындардың рөлі көрсетілген. Мақалада мектеп оқушыларының
танымдық қызығушылығын ойлау процессінің ең тиімді түрлері дидактикалық ойындарды сабақта
қолдану туралы айтылған.
Тірек сөздер: ойын, дидактикалық ойын, ойын шаралары, ойын классификациясы.
Activation of cognitive activity of children through didactic plays
G.K. Kudusheva
Undergraduate Innovative University of Eurasia, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan
E.T. Raklova
Professor of Innovative University of Eurasia, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan
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K. Omarova
Transport and Communications College, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan
Summary
This article deals with the problem of children's activity. The role of didactic plays shows as a me
ans
of revitalization of the children. The article is about the use of didactic plays on the lessons, wh
ich helps
to the development of cognitive interests, thought processes and positive motivation of children lea
rning.
Keywords: play, didactic play, play activity, classification of plays.
УДК 372.854.14
ОҚУШЫЛАРҒА ОҚУДА КЕЗДЕСЕТІН ҚИЫНШЫЛЫҚТАРДЫ ЖОЮҒА
КӨМЕКТЕСУ
Г.М. Мажитова
Павлодар қаласы №5 жалпы орта білім беру
мектебінің қазақ тілі мен əдебиеті пəні мұғалімі,
Павлодар қ., Қазақстан
Аңдатпа
Баяндамада оқушылардың сабақ барысында кездесетін қиыншылықтарын
шешу жолдары туралы жазылған. Қазақ тілі мен қазақ əдебиеті сабақтарында жеті
модульді ықпалдастыру арқылы оқушыларға оқуда кездесетін қиыншылықтарды жоюға
көмектестік.
Тірек сөздер: оқушылар, оқуда кездесетін қиыншылықтар, модульдер, қазақ тілі мен
əдебиеті сабақтары.
Оқушыларға оқуда кездесетін қиыншылықтарды жоюға көмектесу атты ба-
яндамада оқушылардың сабақ барысында кездесетін қиыншылықтарын шешу
жолдары туралы жазылған. Деңгейлік курстан өткеннен кейін сыныптарда зерт-
теу жұмыстарын өткізіп, оқушыларды топтарда жұмыс істеуге дағдыландыра
бастадық. Бұл зерттеу жұмыстарын не үшін өткізу керек, əрине топта жұмыс
істегенде оқушылар жиі бір-бірлерімен жұмыс істегілері келмей, келіспеушілік
болып жатады. Сол себепті алдымен психологиялық зерттеу өткізіп алған дұрыс.
Топта жұмыс істегенде оқушының көңілі түспей тұрған оқушымен отырғысы кел-
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мей тұрса зорлап отырғызуға болмайды. Өйткені ондай жұмыстан жақсы нəтиже
шықпайды.
Өз пікірін, ойын қоршаған ортаға жеткізе алмау, түсіндіре алмау тұлғаны
жағымсыз сезімге ұшыратады. Бұл жетіспеушіліктер тұлғаның толыққанды
жетілуіне кедергі келтіреді.
Сіз өміріңізде кітаптың немесе фильм атын үнсіз қимыл арқылы түсіндіретін
ойынға қатысып көрдіңіз бе? Сізді ойыншылар ұға алмаса қандай сезімде бо-
лар едіңіз? Басқа тілде сөйлейтін адамдар арасында өз ойымызды жеткізу үшін
біз де осындай амалдарды қолданамыз. Оқушылардың қызығушылықтарын ояту
мұғалімнің қолында, сол себепті əр түрлі стратегияларды қолдана отырып , зерт-
тей отырып белгілі бір нəтижелерге жету мүмкіндігіміз бар.
Өз пікірін, ойын қоршаған ортаға жеткізе алмау, түсіндіре алмау тұлғаны
жағымсыз сезімге ұшыратады. Бұл жетіспеушіліктер тұлғаның толыққанды
жетілуіне кедергі келтіреді.
Сіз өміріңізде кітаптың немесе фильм атын үнсіз қимыл арқылы түсіндіретін
ойынға қатысып көрдіңіз бе? Сізді ойыншылар ұға алмаса қандай сезімде болар
едіңіз? Басқа тілде сөйлейтін адамдар арасында өз ойымызды жеткізу үшін біз де
осындай амалдарды қолданамыз.
Психикалық кеш дамитын (ПКД) жəне аутизм қиындықтары бар балалар-
ды оқыту ерекше сұраныстарды қажет етеді, бірақ олардың достары болмауы,
оқшауланып қалуы жəне тентектердің мазағына ұшырауы мүмкін. Сынып ішінде
өз қабілеттерін, біліктіліктерін көрсетуде де қиындыққа тап болады.
Дегенмен мұғалімнің оқыту кезіндегі қиындықтарды жеңу үшін қолданатын
бірнеше стратегиялары бар. Сондықтан, ең біріншіден, мұндай балаларды оқытатын
мұғалімдердің арнайы білімінің болғаны жөн.
Қоршаған орта: визуалды тəсілдерді қолданыңыз, мысалы, ауызша жəне жаз-
баша сөйлеуді ымдау, дене қимылдарымен толықтыруға болады. Көрнекті кесте
жасаңыз. Мүмкіндігінше бөгде дыбыстардан алшақтатыңыз. Жұмыста гүл тера-
пиясын қолданып, сабақты өте жарқыраған заттармен ауырлатудан аулақ болу
керек.
Тұрақты режім: балаларды оқытуды жеңілдетуге жəне олар өзін қамқорлықта
сезінуі үшін мұның өмірлік маңызы зор. Егер де күн тəртібі өзгеріп жатса, ол ту-
ралы балаларға алдын ала хабарлауды ұмытпаңыз. Жаңа мұғалімдерді алдын-ала
таныстырыңыз. Балалар болашақта одан қорықпау үшін, таныстыру барынша
дəйектілікпен жүргізілуі керек.
Вербальды нұсқаулықтар: Мінез-құлықтың вербалды нұсқаулықтары қысқа
əрі нақты болуы керек. Балалар сіздің тек өздеріне ғана көңіл бөлетініңізді білсін.
Əр жағдайға байланысты бір ғана нұсқау беріңіз. Бала сіздің бет – жүзіңізді көріп
3–4
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тұрсын. Анық, қарапайым, қалыпты жылдамдықпен сөйлеңіз. Қимылдарды
қолданыңыз. Анық жеткізілмейтін, дəлме–дəл қабылдануы мүмкін астарлы,
бейнелі сөздерді қолданбаңыз. Балаға не істеуге болмайтынын емес, істеуге бола-
тынын айтыңыз. Балаға осы кезде нақты не істеу керек екенін дəл айтыңыз.
Құрмет: егер балалар жұптасып, топтасып атқарылатын жұмыстарда өздерін
еркін сезіне алмайтын болса, оларды мəжбүрлеудің қажеті жоқ. Осы мақсатта
сыныптағы ПКД балалардың жəне аутист-балалардың кімдермен қарым-қатынас
жасайтынын білу керек. Бұған «Достар ортасы» немесе «əлеуметтік тарих» сияқты
жаттығулар көмектесе алады.
Мадақтама: баланың қарым-қатынас жасау үшін қабылдаған барлық
əрекеттерін марапаттаңыз. Баланың ауызекі тілін жөндеуден аулақ болыңыз, одан
да сөйлеуді дамытатын жақсы модельдермен жəне мүмкіндіктермен қамтамасыз
етіңіз. Баланың əлеуметтік дағдыларын, тіл қолданысын арттыруды баланың
қызығушылық танытатын істері арқылы жүзеге асырыңыз.
Мультисенсорлы (көп сенсорлы): оқытудың көру жəне кинестикалық
тəсілдерін қолданыңыз. Бірақ психикалық кеш дамыған бала құм мен суды жақсы
көріп, ал аутист баланың оларды жек көруі ықтимал екенін естен шығармаңыз.
Сыныптан тыс əрекеттер: ПКД балаларда жəне аутизммен сырқат балаларда
қиындықтар үзілісте, тамақтануда, аялдамада автобусты күткенде немесе кез кел-
ген уақытта туындауы мүмкін. Бұл уақыттағы жағдаяттардан компьютер клуб-
тары, ұйымдастырылған ойындар жəне тəлімгерлер ұсынған оңды қолдаулар
оқушыларды əлеуметтік дағдыларға үйрете алады.
Егер баланың сөйлеу тілінде қиындықтар болған жағдайда ұсынылатын
шешімдер
– Оқушыға берілген сұраққа жауап беру үшін қосымша уақыт алуына
мүмкіндік беріңіз;
– Оның өзара қарым-қатынастан алар пайдасын бақылаңыз.
– Осындай санаттағы балаларға көмегі болуы мүмкін қарым-қатынас жүйесін
зерттеудегі британдық ымдау тілі (BSL) немесе Makaton тəжірибелерін зерделеңіз.
– (пəнді анықтауға арналған сөздерді қоса алғанда) жаңа сөздерді оқытыңыз.
– Сөз қолданысына, сөздердің орын тəртібін жүйелендіруге арналған тапсыр-
малар беріңіз.
– Ауызекі сөйлеу дағдысы жетілген балалармен қарым-қатынас жасауына,
олармен түрлі тақырыпта диалог құруына жағдай жасаңыз.
Сөйлеу əрекетін жоспарлауда, ұйымдастыруда кездесетін қиындықтар
Құрбылары немесе мұғалім оқушының сөйлеу əрекетін ұйымдастыруға
көмектесе алады. ПКД балалар жəне аутизммен ауыратын балалар оларды
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күнделікті өмірде еш қиындықсыз қолдануы үшін сөйлемдердің ойластырылған
құрылымын пайдалану керек.
Еге рбаланың қарым-қатынас жасауда проблемалары болса:
– баланы əрдайым атымен атаңыз;
– сабақтан тыс шаралар өткізу кезінде балаларға өздері отырғысы келетін
орындарға (кілемде, диванда, т.б.) отыруға рұқсат етіңіз;
– балалардың компьютерге қол жеткізуін қамтамасыз етіңіз. Олар балаларға
бар назарын қажетті мəселеге аударып, кедергісіз жұмыс істеуге мүмкіндік береді;
– қажет болған жағдайда, нұсқаулықты қайталап айтыңыз; бірақ басқа
сөздермен қайталап айтудың ПКД балаға көмектесіп, аутизммен сырқат баланы
шатастыратындығын ұмытпаңыз;
– сұрақтарға өте мұқият болыңыз, себебі күрделі жауапты талап ететін
сұрақтарға қарағанда, қарапайым жауапты талап ететін сұрақтар аутизммен
сырқат бала үшін қолайлы жағдай туғызады;
– баладан олардың түсінігін тексеру үшін, сіздерге қандай əрекет жасау
керектігін тағы басқаларға айтып көруін өтініңіз;
– баланың күнделікті қолдануы үшін қысқа сөйлемдерді үйретіңіз (бұл
жөнінде үлкендердің барлығы білетіндігін жеткізіңіз!) немесе оған көмек қажет
болған жағдайда мағыналы карталар арқылы қолдау көрсетіңіз;
– сəті келгенде қалжың аралас метафораны қолдана оқытыңыз;
– ым мен мимика арқылы сөздердің мағынасын түсіндіріңіз;
– баланың жұмыс орнында қолайлы жағдай жасаңыз.
Оқудағы қиындықтарды жеңу
Өзара іс-əрекет арқылы оқу (интерактив)
Құрамдас бөлшектері:
– Тиімділік: оқушылардың орнында болсақ, өзімізді қалай сезінер едік.
– Əлеуметтілік:өзара іс-əрекет арқылы оқыту.
– Когнитивтік:ойлау операцияларының үдерісі.
– Қиындықтарды түсіну.
– Оқуға деген танымдық қабілет.
Оқушыларға қажетті көптеген дағдылар бар: санай, оқи, жаза білу, жинақылық,
қабылдау жəне қайтадан айтып беру. Кейбір оқушылар осы салаларда қиындық
көріп жатады, сондықтан олардың өзіне деген сенімін арттырып, өздеріне беретін
бағасын көтеру мақсатында алған білімдерін дұрыс қолдануға, бұл қиындықтарды
барабар қабылдауға жəне жеңуге бағытталған, арнайы əзірленген стратегияларды
қажетсінеді. Оқуда белгілі бір қиындық көретін оқушылар жалпы білім беретін
мектептерде көп кездеседі, бірақ əдетте оларға аса көңіл бөліне бермейді.
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Дислексия оқушының танымдық қабілеттері шегіндегі оқудағы кедергілердің
тағы бір үлгісі болып табылады. Бұл кемшілік оқушының оқу, жазу, сауаттыжазу,
есептеу қабілеттеріне əсер етеді. Дислексияны оқушы жадысының қысқа болуы-
нан, кештүсінетіндігінен, қозғалыс үйлесімінің əлсіздігінен көруге болады, соны-
мен қатар сауаттылық дағдысы күнделікті өмірдің бір бөлігі болғандықтан жəне
де бұл саладағы қиындықтар оқушының өзінің өзіне беретін бағасына ықпал етуі
мүмкін болғандықтан, бұлақаулық жасырын еңбекке жарамсыздық болып табы-
лады.
Əлеуметтілік: қарым-қатынасжəнеинтерактивтілік (өзарақарым-қатынас)
Оқу-əлеуметтік үдеріс, сондықтан оқушылар басқа оқушылар мен өзара
қарым-қатынас арқылы да, өз беттерімен де дами алады. Осыған байланы-
сты қазіргі кезде топтық жəне жұппен жұмыс істеуге көп көңіл бөлінеді. Сынып
ұжымының мүшесі ретінде оқушыларға қойылатын негізгі талаптардың бірі:
тыңдау, түсіну, сөйлеу жəне өз пікірін нақты жəне анық білдіру, дұрыс жауап беру,
ұжымдық жұмыс пен ойын. Əлеуметтік тұрғы даналғанда оқу басқалармен арала-
сып, қарым-қатынас жасауда қиыншылық көретін оқушылар үшін проблема бо-
лып табылады. Қиыншылықтардың қатарына дислексия жəне диспраксия (қимыл
қозғалысының бұзылуы) сияқты тілдік жəне сөйлеу проблемалары да кіруі мүмкін.
Сөйлеудегі кедергілерді жеңу ең басты мəселе болып табылады. Бұл оқушыларға
оқу бағдарламасына қол жеткізуг емүмкіндік береді.
Тиімділік: мінез-құлық, эмоциялықжəнеəлеуметтік даму
Оқушылардың сенімін, ынтасы мен тəуелсіздігін дамытудың əр түрлі
əлеуметтік жəне психологиялық тəсілдері бар. Олар өзіндік «менін» тануды, эмо-
цияларын басқаруды, əлеуметтік тəжірибе, ынтасы жəне аяушылықпен қарай
білуді қамтиды. Кейбір оқушылар үшін ынталандырудың жетіспей жататыны
анықталды, олардың сəтсіздіктен қорқынышы, қарым-қатынас жасаудағы, эмо-
цияларын басқарудағы қиыншылықтары кедергі жасайды. Жоғарыда айтылған
қиыншылықтар оқуда айтарлықтай психологиялық жəне əлеуметтік кедергілердің
пайда болуына əкелуімүмкін. Оқушылар физиологиялық, ақыл-ой немесе қоршаған
орта факторларына (себептерге) немесе осылардың барлығына байланысты бірқатар
əлеуметтік, мінез-құлықтық, эмоциялық əрекеттер жасауы мүмкін. Бұл саладағы
проблемалар уақытша (адамның өмір мəнін жоғалтуына бейімделуі) жəне тұрақты
бола алады. Оқушылар өздерінің эмоциялық жəне əлеуметтік қажеттіліктерін əр
түрлі тəсілдер мен көрсетіп жатады. Ола роқшауланып қала алады, жалғыздыққа
ұрынып, ойларын жинақтай алмай қалуы да мүмкін, ал кейбір балалар керісінше
өте белсенді, проблемалы болып кетеді.
Эмоциялық жəне физиологиялық қажеттіліктер
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
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Жекелеген оқушылар да оқуда кедергі болып табылатын психофизиоло-
гиялық ақаулықтар көп кездеседі. Сенсорлық проблемалар көру немесе есту
қиыншылықтарын да қамтуы ықтимал, бірақ олар да уақытша болуы мүмкін.
Физиологиялық қиындықтар физиологиялық, зат алмасу, неврологиялық себеп-
терден туындайды, олар сабақ өтетін сыныптарды лайықты түрде жабдықтауды
талап етеді. Бірақ көптеген оқушылар одан да күрделі білім беру жəне əлеуметтік
қиындықтарға қалып отыр. Кейбір оқушылар мультисенсорлық қиындық көрсе,
кейбіреулері – физиологиялық қиындықта болады. Өте күрделі физиологиялық
ауытқулары бар оқушылар үшін арнайы оқу жəне жабдықтар қажет.
Тапсырма: арнайы білім беру қажеттіліктері (АБҚ) бар оқушыларды диагно-
стикалау
Сыныбыңыздағы оқушылартуралы ойланыңыз:
1. Қандай өзекті жəне əлеуеттік кедергілер бар?
2. Оқушылар кестеде келтірілген АБҚ санаттарының біреуіне болсын сəйкес
келе ме? Оны қалай анықтадыңыз?
3. Сыныпта қандай қиындықтар кең тараған? Оны қалай анықтадыңыз?
4. Қандай проблеманы жеңу ең қиын соқты жəне неліктен?
5. Бұл қиындықтарды жеңу үшін не істейсіз?
6. Осы оқушыларға көмектесу үшін Сізге қандай көмек, қолдау қажет?
Мұғалім əрекеттері оқушыға:
– пəнді түсінуін дамытуға;
– ақпаратты есте сақтауға жəнет олықтыруға (есте сақтау);
– мəтінді оқудағы, жазудағы жəне ойлау қабілеттеріндегі қиындықтарды
жеңуге мүмкіндік беруге тиісті.
Саналы түрде ұғынып оқу оқушылар орындауға тиісті əрекеттермен жəне
олардың өзіндік білім алуын дамыту үшін біздің қолайлы жағдай жасауымызбен
ғана шектелмейтіндігін түсіну керек.
Сіздер оқушыларға оқу жоспарын меңгеруге көмектесе алатын көптеген
жолдар бар. Біз бірнеше стратегия ұсынамыз. Бірақ жекелеген оқушылардың
қажеттіліктері, сіз жұмыс істейтін жағдайлар жеке оқушыларға оқуға көмектесетін
бірқатар шығармашыл тəсілдерді меңзейді.
Түсіну
– оқушылардың мəтінді оқуына жəне ережелерді дұрыс түсінуіне көмек
көрсетуде ымды, визуалды белгілерді қолдану жəне өзге де көмек көрсету;
– сұрақты ұқпағансып, сұрақ қою немесе мəселе тудыру, бұл Сізге ережелердің
реттілігі арқылы жүріп өтуге мүмкіндік береді;
– олардың қазір не істеулері керектігі туралы сұрақ қоя отырып, түсініктерін
тексеру;
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– нақты обьектілерді, белгілерді, символдарды, фотосуреттерді, сандық ось-
тер жəне компьютерлік анимацияларды қолдану арқылы абстрактілі ұғымдарды
нақты ұғымдарға айналдыру;
– мəтін құрылымын, сұраққа жауап берудің əртүрлі нысандарын құруға
мүмкіндік беретін міндеттерді пайдалану.
Қорыта келгенде оқушыларға кездесетін қиыншылықтарды жоя отырып, жа-
дында қалтыра алу үшін:
– оқушыларға оқу мақсаты туралы еске салып отыру;
– көрнекі құралдар пайдалану;
– есептерді шешуде бұйымдарды, суреттерді, белгілерді немесе тірек
сөздерді, алгоритмдерді пайдалану;
– оқушылардың орындауындағы нұсқаулардың дыбыстық жазбаларын жа-
сау үшін диктофонды пайдалану;
– есте сақтауға қажетті тірек сөздердің қысқаша жазбаларын тақтаға жазып
қою.
Əдебиеттер
1. Қазақ тілі мен əдебиеті орыс мектебінде журналдар №5, 7, 8.
2. Қайырбекова А. Қазақ тілі: оқыту əдістемесі. Жалпы білім бер. орыс мект. 4-сын.
мұғ. арн. / А. Қайырбекова. – 2-бас., өңд. – Алматы: Атамұра, 2015. – 240 б.
3. Исаева Ə. Қазақ тілін оқытудың дидактикалық материалдар / Ə. Исаева.
4. Қайырбекова А. Қазақ тілін оқыту əдістемесі / А. Қайырбекова, А. Кенже-
сариева.
Помощь учащимся в преодолении
возникающих трудностей при обучении
Г.М. Мажитова
учитель казахского языка и литературы средней школы №5,
г. Павлодар, Казахстан
Аннотация
В данной статье рассматриваются пути решения возникающих трудностей учащихся в про-
цессе урока. В статье рассматриваются возможности 7 модулей на на уроках казахского языка и ли-
тературы в плане помощи учащимся в преодолении возникающих трудностей при обучении
Ключевые слова: учащиеся, возникающие трудности при обучении, модули, уроки казахско-
го языка и литературы.
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
64
The help to pupils in overcoming the arising difficulties when training
G.M. Mazhitova
teacher of the Kazakh language and literature secondary school number 5,
Pavlodar, Kazakhstan
Summary
This article discusses ways to address emerging problems of students in the lesson. The article deal
s
with the possibility of 7 modules on the lessons of the Kazakh language and literature in terms of h
elping
students to overcome the difficulties encountered in teaching
Keywords: students have difficulty learning module, the lessons of the Kazakh language and
literature
УДК 372.854.13
ГЕНИЙ М.Ш. АЛИНОВА
Д.Ж. Сакенов
профессор Павлодарского государственного
педагогического института, г. Павлодар, Казахстан
Аннотация
Статья раскрывает многогранность педагогической деятельности профессора, де-
кана ПГПИ М.Ш. Алиновой. В статье приводятся пожелания к 70-летнему юбилею Али-
новой Мансии Шарапатовны, учителя, педагога, профессора, декана, красивой женщины.
Ключевые слова: Алинова М.Ш., юбилей, гений, управление, учитель, педагог, про-
фессор, декан, красивая женщина.
Алинова Мансия Шарапатовна, доктор педагогических наук, профессор, учи-
тель, декан факультета, автор многочисленных научных публикаций, прекрасная
и красивая женщина, гений своей отрасли наук, гений управления, сегодня отме-
чает свой 70-летний юбилей. Как гений управления, она обладает следующими ка-
чествами:
– сильным желанием работать усердно и много;
– делает то, что другие считают невозможным;
– знает, что нужно делать и добивается этого;
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– откровенна, пряма и честна;
– берет ответственность за то, что идёт неправильно;
– не боится признаться, что ошиблась и учится на своих ошибках управле-
ния;
– никогда не сомневается, что добьется управленческого успеха;
– знает, как мотивировать коллектив, способна очень эффективно доносить
свои идеи до других, использует любую возможность объяснить свои идеи дру-
гим;
– всегда готова шутить над собой и не обижается, когда шутят над ней.
Давно известно, что женщины намного эмоциональней мужчин, это в пол-
ной мере касается и представительниц слабого пола, занимающих руководящие
должности. Алинова Мансия Шарапатовна – женщина-начальница, декан передо-
вого факультета, как гений управления, несмотря на внешнюю строгость, невозму-
тимость и возложенную на нее ответственность, в глубине души остается нежной
и чувственной, и в свой день рождения ей хочется услышать что-то особенное не
только от своих родных и близких, но и от людей, с которыми она проводит боль-
шую часть времени – от своих сотрудников. В таком случае прекрасным вариан-
том является поздравление коллег, которые помогут не только подобрать добрые
и искренние пожелания, но и выдержать необходимый стиль общения, сложив-
шийся в коллективе факультета. По этим поздравлениям Алинова Мансия Шара-
патовна конечно же узнает своих коллег, сотрудников факультета. Простые, лако-
ничные и в тоже время уникальные поздравления, из которых можно с легкостью
выбрать то, что понравится и запомнится именно Алиновой Мансие Шарапатов-
не – женщине-начальнице, декану факультета:
* * *
Дорогая наша Мансия Шарапатовна – мудрая, светлая, понимающая! Коллек-
тив нашей кафедры от всей души и чистого сердца поздравляет Вас с этим свет-
лым днем и желает Вам новых побед, новых свершений, только приятных дости-
жений и только решаемых задач. Пусть каждый Ваш день начинается с искренней
улыбки и хорошего настроения, а любимая работа не перестает вдохновлять. Мы
Вас очень, ценим, любим и уважаем, ведь Вы – опора нашего коллектива, его све-
точ, его тыл. Пусть же Ваше личное огромное счастье будет вечным – таким, как
Ваша любовь к работе, а здоровье – крепким, как Ваша выдержка! Долгих лет жиз-
ни и достижения всех поставленных целей!
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
66
* * *
Самому любимому и хорошему декану в день рождения хочу пожелать само-
го главного и самого простого: здоровья, счастья, любви. А еще оптимизма и сво-
боды. Чтобы Ваша душа всегда парила и была наполнена внутренней силой. Что-
бы Вы могли взлететь над любыми проблемами и увидеть, как они ничтожно ма-
лы. Пусть никакие беды не смущают Ваше сердце!
* * *
Замечательный руководитель и прекрасная женщина, с днем рождения Вас!
Пусть судьба зажжет над Вами счастливую звезду, и она никогда не покидает Вас.
Пусть во всех делах Вам сопутствует успех. Пусть все, к чему бы Вы не прикосну-
лись, превращалось в прибыль. Пусть Вы никогда не устанете от работы!
* * *
Дорогая Мансия Шарапатовна! Наш дружный коллектив факультета – это
прямое доказательство Ваших трудов, в качестве руководителя, ставшего для нас
не только ярким примером для подражания, но незаменимым соратником. Мы же-
лаем Вам не терять позитивного настроя к жизни и стремительно продвинуться по
должностной лестнице к вершине. Счастья вам, почета и успехов в труде! С днем
рождения!
Дорогая Мансия Шарапатовна, в ваш 70-летний юбилей мы дарим Вам эти
прекрасные стихи:
Сегодня юбилей у той,
Кто позабыл уж про покой,
Кто всех успеет навестить,
Умеет преданно любить.
Кто знает толк в делах и моде,
Улыбчив при любой погоде,
Кому не жалко милых фраз,
Кто не оставит, не предаст.
Так пусть глаза всегда искрятся,
А неудачи пусть боятся.
Чтобы были силы, и с годами
Душа бы полнилась цветами.
3–4
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Чтоб красота – везде, во всём.
Теплом окутан был ваш дом,
И уважением, и силой.
И жизни – долгой и красивой!
*
Кемеңгер М.Ш. Алинова
Дж.Ж. Сəкенов
Павлодар мемлекеттік педагогикалық институтының
профессоры, Павлодар қ., Қазақстан
Андатпа
Мақала ПМПИ профессоры, декан М.Ш. Алинованың педагогикалық қызметінің əртүрлі-
ліктігін ашады. Мұғалім, педагог, профессор, декан, сүйкімді əйел Мансия Шарапатовна Алинованың
70-жылдығына мақалада мерейтойлық тілектер ұсынылады.
Тірек сөздер: М.Ш. Алинова, мерейтойлық, кемеңгер, педагог, ағартушы, профессор, декан,
сүйкімді əйел.
Genius M.Sh. Alinova
J.Zh. Sakenov
Professor of Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute,
Pavlodar, Kazakhstan
Summary
The article reveals the diversity of pedagogical activity professor, dean of PSPI M.Sh. Alinovoy.
The article gives suggestions to the 70th anniversary of Alinovoy Muncie Sharapatovny, teachers, tea
cher,
professor, dean, beautiful woman.
Keywords: Alinova M.Sh., anniversary, genius, management, teacher, educator, professor, dean,
beautiful woman.
* Из свободных источников.
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
68
DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE
IN DUAL-SPECIALTY STUDENTS
(ON AN EXAMPLE OF «HISTORY, RELIGIOUS STUDIES» SPECIALTY)
A.E. Karimova, A.S. Amanova, A.M. Sadykova,
N.E. Kuzembaev, A.T. Makisheva,
G.Zh. Kurmangazina, Janat Sakenov
Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute,
Kazakhstan, 140000, Pavlodar, Mira Street, 60
M.K. Kunanbayev
history teacher Komsomol School, Ekibastuz
Abstract
The article explores the significant problem of developing a theoretical model of professional
competence development in dual-specialty students (on the example of the “History, Religious
studies” specialty). In order to validate the specifics of the professional competence development
in dual-specialty students (on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty), we
conducted the analysis of the establishment of the “professional competencies” concept. We
provide theoretical validation of the structure and content of the professional competence in dual-
specialty students (on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty). We studied,
methodologically validated and developed a structure of a theoretical model of the professional
competence development in dual-specialty students (on the example of the “History, Religious
studies” specialty), which includes blocks, criterions, levels, methods, means and conditions for th
e
efficiency of this process. Theoretical model of the professional competence development in dual-
specialty students (on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty) is recommended
for use during the development of the standards for dual specialties and educational programs in
the higher school.
Keywords: dual specialty, theoretical model, development, professional competencies,
students, history, religious studies.
1. Introduction
One of the leading global trends in higher education development is the training
of multi-profile specialists, who have professional competencies in the field of several
sciences and are able to use them in their work (Astakhova, 2003; Carr & Skinner, 2009;
Kalashnikova, 2014). In the next decades, this trend will become the leading one in the
field of higher education in Kazakhstan.
ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТАЛЬНЫЙ РАЗДЕЛ СТАТЕЙ
ПО ТРЕБОВАНИЯМ БАЗЫ ЦИТИРОВАНИЯ SCOPUS
3–4
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Training the multi-profile teachers of the new type requires new approaches and
educational programs in teaching, orientation on the current situation in the country,
consideration of the legal norms and regard for the job market needs, etc. Because of this,
the project about the problem of training a multi-profile teacher of the new type – teacher of
history and religious studies – is significant and demanded in the field of higher education.
Currently, the main focus is turned towards the prophylactics and prevention of crimes
in the field of religions. Foundation of the efficient fight against religious extremism and
activity of the banned cults is the education of the growing youth that studies in secondary
general-education schools, lyceums and gymnasiums, and the development of the correct
understanding of the specifics of the global religions and religious tolerance towards the
people of other religions in the young generation. In order to fulfill this range of goals,
it is necessary to prepare a multi-profile specialist of the new type – teacher of history
and religious studies, who has the professional competencies for actually providing the
students with the knowledge in the field of history and religious studies. Moreover, this
would facilitate solving the problem of the employment of the college graduates, who
would be required in the ungraded schools and in the field of higher and secondary-
level education, as well as in the organizations, which address the issues of religious
politics. Because of this, the problem of the professional competence development in dual-
specialty students (on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty) becomes
significant.
Competence approach is the priority in the process of training a multi-profile
teacher of the new type – history and religious studies teacher. Scientific problem of
studying professional competence was addressed in the studies of: K.M. Berkimbaev,
S.T. Nyshanova, B.T. Kerimbaeva and G.P. Meyrbekova (2012), A. Chown (1994),
S. Gifford (1994), N. Fernandez, V. Dory, L.-G. SteMarie, M. Chaput, B. Charlin and
A. Boucher (2012), Zh.K. Onalbek, V.V. Grinshkun, B.S. Omarov, B.Z. Abuseytov,
E.T. Makhanbet, B.B. Kendzhaeva (2013), and others. In the works of these researchers,
competence approach is addressed as the focus of the education result, i.e. student’s
ability as a specialist to act in various educational situations. Furthermore, the results
of education on the example of a dual specialty are considered to be significant outside
of the educational system; therefore, this allows setting the education in correspondence
with the demands of the job market and current challenges of the society and to fulfill the
employers’ order to train professionally competent specialists of the new type – history
and religious studies scientists.
In the studies of R.W. White (1959), E.E. Symanyuk and A.A. Pecherkina (2016),
Ch. Day (1994), D. Hutchinson (1994), M. Johnson, L.S. Cowin, I. Wilson and H. Young
(2012), K.A. Brown-Rice and S. Furr (2013), G.Z. Niyazova, K.M. Berkimbaev,
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
70
R.E. Pralieva, D.K. Berdi and A.K. Bimaganbetova (2013) the main characteristics of the
competence approach are the following:
– Efficient use of skills, which allows productively performing the professional
activity;
– Mastering knowledge, abilities and skills, which are necessary for working within
the specialty with the simultaneous independence and flexibility in solving professional
problems;
– Well-developed cooperation with the colleagues and the professional interpersonal
environment;
– Integrated combination of knowledge, abilities and affirmations, which are
optimal for conducting work activity in the modern educational environment;
– Ability to work well and efficient in the wide format of contexts with a high level
of self-regulation, self-reflection and self-evaluation;
– Fast, flexible and adaptive reaction for the dynamics of circumstances and
environment.
One of the productive directions of the analysis of complex pedagogical phenomena,
which include training the dual-specialty specialists, on the methodologic level is systemic
approach. It allows defining an integral combination of inter-connected structural and
functional components – units of the analysis, which follow the goals of mentoring,
education, students’ cognitive and productive activity as the prospective specialists; it
also allows studying their interconnections. Systemic approach in the pedagogics was
addressed by B. Oreck (2004) and A.V. Torkhova (2006); D.Zh. Sakenov et al. (2012)
studied it in the general structure of higher education.
The conducted analysis allows us to state the controversies between:
– The objective need in the wide-profile specialists with dual-competence training,
who are professionally mobile and adaptive, and insufficient development of the scientific
bases of the design and functioning of the system of training such specialists in the modern
pedagogic college;
– Disciplinary nature of educational activity and inter-subjective nature of the
professional activity, which prevents the development of students’ professional competence,
range of beliefs, unconventionality of thinking and ability to solve problems, which occur
on border between different sciences.
Therefore, analysis of the studies of L. Sundburg (2001), A.E. Karimova, N.E. Ku-
zembaev, A.S. Amanova, and A.M. Sadykov (2016), G. Otepova, and A. Ilyassova (2014),
A.V. Torkhova, (2006) and of the higher education practice in training dual-specialty
students allowed stating the main controversy between the objective need in professional
competence development in dual-specialty students (on the example of the “History,
Religious studies” specialty) and insufficient level of the theoretical bases of professional
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competence development in dual-specialty students (on the example of the “History,
Religious studies” specialty) in the higher professional education system, as well as the
corresponding Theoretical model of the professional competence development in dual-
specialty students (on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty).
We transformed the range of the addressed problem into the scientific problem of
the study, which can be described the following way: which is the structure and content of
the Theoretical model of professional competence development in dual-specialty students
(on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty)?
The solution of the abovementioned scientific problem is rooted in the aim of the
study: to construct a Theoretical model of professional competence development in dual-
specialty students (on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty).
2. Methods
Methodological basis of the study consists of interdisciplinary and systemic
approaches. Religion is a social-cultural phenomenon, which is tightly linked with traditions
and national psychology. The development of scientific-methodic foundation promotes
the development of general cultural approach, corresponds with the requirements of the
new ontology of science and education, because it provides the interdisciplinary nature of
fundamental education. Interaction and mutual influence of different cultures – concepts
of specific sciences, history and religious studies – constitute the wide inter-disciplinary
field. Without knowing history, religion and bases of philosophy, it is impossible to
comprehend cultural and historical roots of many phenomena in history and present
time. From the position of the systemic approach, this problem is addressed as a certain
education system and as an activity of the subjects, which are included in it. Analysis and
synthesis are the priority research methods, because the work is based on integrating the
disciplines, which requires research and analysis of the scientific-methodic problems in
the field of training a history and religious studies specialist.
During the completion of the study, we conducted theoretical analysis of pedagogical,
philosophical and psychological literature on the problem of professional competence
development in dual-specialty students (on the example of the “History, Religious studies”
specialty); analysis of pedagogical practice and research of the content, methodology
and system of humanitarian education. The main theoretical method was genetically-
constructive method, which allows modelling the educational process on the level of
intra-subjective and inter-subjective integration; comparative-corresponding analysis,
modelling method, method of scientific anticipation and design; synthesis, comparison,
generalization and analysis.
The initial methodological positions of the study are based on:
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
72
– Personality-activity approach to organizing the educational process, which implies
the combination of social and personal goals;
– Theory of goal-generation and goal-setting during activity organization;
– Theory of integrity of the content of educational and pedagogical process;
– Methodological statements about the motivational field of personality;
– Systemic approach as a direction in methodology of scientific comprehension of
the social processes, which is based on addressing an object as a system;
– Theory of mentoring, according to which human’s development as a person
consists of mastering the system of objective social roles;
– Theory of cultural studies, which is based on the law of the priority of culture in
social development;
– Theory of regulation;
– Theory of personality as a diachronic structure;
– Theory of personality as a subject of self-comprehension and self-development.
3. Results
Student’s professional competencies are a combination of connected personality
qualities: knowledge, abilities, skills, ways of acting, objects and processes defined with
regard to the professional circle and necessary for the high-quality professional activity
towards him. Professional competencies of dual-specialty students (on the example of
the “History, Religious studies” specialty) is the characteristic of students’ professional
and personal qualities, including professional competencies in the “History, Religious
studies” specialty, that provides efficient and reasonable conduction of the professional
activity in different fields and segments of education. In the works of A.E. Karimova,
N.E. Kuzembaev, A.S. Amanova, and A.M. Sadykov (2016), G. Otepova, and A. Ilyasso-
va (2014), A.V. Torkhova (2006), K.M. Berkimbaev, S.T. Nyshanova, B.T. Kerimbaeva and
G.P. Meyrbekova (2012), and others, student’s professional competencies are defined as
the basis, which provides almost all aspects of the professional activity.
The complexity of training a multi-profile specialist of the new type – history and
religious studies specialist – is also rooted in the fact that currently religious studies in
Kazakhstan do not have strictly stated positions.
Religious studies have the goal of developing an adequate image of religion and an
objective attitude towards it in students and defining religion’s place and role in the system
of culture. Knowledge of history and religious studies specialist might be necessary during
his prospective professional activity during the interaction between the educational and
religious organizations during the conduction of research.
Training the dual-specialty professionals defines the need in specific approaches in
the selection and structuring of the education content, which are related to the presence
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of heterogeneous fields in their professional activity. Training a wide-profile specialist
is based on developing a self-organized, capable of goal-setting and creative work and
competent specialist.
Professional competence of a dual-competence specialist is defined by fundamental
humanitarian-scientific and scientific-affirmational training.
The process of designing and functioning of the system of training personally- and
socially-demanded dual-competence specialists in college conditions can be efficient, if it
is based on the following main points:
1. Correspondence between goals, tasks and content of our designed and actualized
system of training dual-competence specialists and the dynamic and changing social
order for raising a mobile, adaptive, creative and self-actualizing personality;
2. Comprehension of dual competence as an integrated specialist’s training,
which expands the fields, functions and types of the adjoining fields of heterogeneous
professional activity and social-cultural basis, which provides its multi-functionality,
mobility and adaptability;
3. Supply of non-controversial synergic interaction of didactic and methodic
means of the integrated profiles of training, which defines the fulfillment of goals and
development of an integral education content;
4. Integration as social-economical, logical-methodological, epistemological and
axiological foundation of integration of different activity elements into a unified structure,
which has relatively separate, but also hierarchically organized, fields – the occurrence of
which provides productivity and robustness of the integration process.
Because of this, it is necessary:
1. To explore social-economic and social-cultural predispositions and conditions,
which cause the need in preparing dual-competence specialists;
2. To validate the essence and structures of the system of training dual-competence
specialists on the basis of retrospective historical-logical analysis;
3. To develop scientific bases of designing a system of training dual-competence
specialists;
4. To identify the main characteristics of integration of different professional activity
types. To validate logical-content basis of the integration processes;
5. To develop a theoretical model of dual-competence specialists’ training;
6. To validate theoretically dual-specialists’ training in the college conditions.
3.1. Originality of the results.
Our study provides theoretical validation, designs
and presents the Theoretical model of professional competence development in dual-
specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty (see
picture 1).
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
74
Picture 1. Theoretical model of professional competence development
in dual-specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty.
Explanation of picture 1. Theoretical model of professional competence development
in dual-specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty.
Present Theoretical model of professional competence development in dual-specialty
students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty shows the main
elements of the process of the Theoretical model of professional competence development
in dual-specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty, in
their inter-connections:
I – The process of the professional competence development in dual-specialty
students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty;
II – Goal element of the professional competence development in dual-specialty
students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty (to develop the
professional competencies in dual-specialty students);
III – Functional element of the professional competence development in dual-
specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty (development,
organization and regulation of the process of professional competence development in
dual-specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty);
IV – Monitoring element of the professional competence development in dual-
specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty (Criterions:
professional competencies; Levels of development: high, average, low);
V – Organizational element of the professional competence development in dual-
specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty (Conditions:
organization of the educational activity of dual-specialty students in college; Forms of
education: frontal, group, individual; Methods and means of teaching: general, special,
innovative);
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VI – Resulting element of the professional competence development in dual-
specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty (the level
of professional competence development in dual-specialty students on the example of the
“History, Religious studies” specialty);
VII – Prospective element of the process of professional competence development
in dual-specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty
(analysis and renewal of the professional competence development in dual-specialty
students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty).
4. Discussion
– Theoretical model of professional competence development in dual-specialty
students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” presents the hierarchically-
defined system of inter-connected goals, content and principles of integration of adjacent
fields of heterogeneous professional activity, aimed at expanding professional mobility
and personality self-actualization;
– Theoretical model of professional competence development in dual-specialty
students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” is the proof of the fact that the
integration of heterogeneous fields of professional activity (history, religion) leads to a new
model of dual-competence specialists’ activity, which is characterized by the expansion
of its types, functions and fields. This model determines the content and structure of
training dual-competence specialists;
– Theoretical model of professional competence development in dual-specialty
students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” corresponds with a dual-
competence specialist’s professional activity, provides the coherence and inter-connection
of goals, content and principles of heterogeneous types of training and is aimed at the
development of generalized, mutually-enriching knowledge, abilities and skills;
– Theoretical model of professional competence development in dual-specialty
students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” reveals the content and
principles of constructing a complex and anticipatory educational-programmed supply
of dual-competence specialists’ training, which reflects the structure and content of their
professional activity and training.
It is necessary to focus on high-quality training of a multi-profile teacher of the
new type with fundamental knowledge in the field of global and national history and
religious studies. Ministry of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan presents a logical
demand – history of religions and other religious-studies disciplines in schools and higher
educational institutions have to be taught by the teachers, who have special professional
training. During the current year, MOS of the RK introduced a pilot project on training
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
76
the specialists in dual specialties, which once again stresses the significance of training
the employees of multi-profile type.
5. Conclusion
As a result of the conducted study, we validated the concept of student’s professional
competencies as a combination of connected personality qualities: knowledge, abilities,
skills, ways of acting, objects and processes defined with regard to the professional circle
and necessary for the high-quality professional activity towards him. In turn, professional
competencies of dual-specialty students (on the example of the “History, Religious studies”
specialty) is the characteristic of students’ professional and personal qualities, including
professional competencies in the “History, Religious studies” specialty, that provides
efficient and reasonable conduction of the professional activity in different fields and
segments of education. This position is the foundation of the structure of the Theoretical
model of professional competence development in dual-specialty students on the example
of the “History, Religious studies” specialty. Originality and scientific novelty of our
study consists of defining and specifying the systemic approach towards the process of
professional competence development in dual-specialty students on the example of the
“History, Religious studies” specialty. Systemic approach allowed us to develop and validate
the structure, elements and content of the Theoretical model of professional competence
development in dual-specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies”
specialty. The developed Theoretical model of professional competence development
in dual-specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty
makes a theoretical contribution in the further development of methodology and methods
of the professional training of dual-specialty students on the example of the “History,
Religious studies” specialty; it also sets the perspectives of further studies of the scientific
problem of the professional competence development in dual-specialty students on the
example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty. Unlike the studies of A.V. Torkho-
va (2006), A.E. Karimova, N.E. Kuzembaev, A.S. Amanova, and A.M. Sadykov (2016),
G. Otepova, and A. Ilyassova (2014), K.M. Berkimbaev, S.T. Nyshanova, B.T. Kerimbaeva
and G.P. Meyrbekova (2012), E.E. Symanyuk and A.A. Pecherkina. (2016), in our study
we developed a Theoretical model of professional competence development in dual-
specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies” specialty, the content
and structure of which define the conditions for updating educational and methodic materials
and educational programs, which provide the efficiency of the process of professional
competence development in dual-specialty students on the example of the “History,
Religious studies” specialty. The developed Theoretical model of professional competence
development in dual-specialty students on the example of the “History, Religious studies”
specialty is recommended for pilot use in higher educational institutions.
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THE PROCESS OF PREPARING FUTURE TEACHERS
TO USE MULTIMEDIA LEARNING
A.M. Zakal
Universität Hamburg
20148, Hamburg, Mittelweg, 177, Germany
Janat Sakenov
Pavlodar state pedagogical institute,
140000, Pavlodar, Mira Street, 60, Kazakhstan.
Elizaveta Shnaider, Baymanov Ruslan
Alma Kazhmuratova, Farida Seytgalieva
School-gymnasium No. 2 of Gafu Kairbekov, Astana
Gulnar Rakhmetulina
Komsomol School, Ekibastuz
Abstract
This paper rationalizes the training of future teachers to use multimedia training tools
and defines future teachers’ readiness to use multimedia training tools reflecting the specifics of
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professional teaching activity. The criteria have been developed (availability of stable motives to
use multimedia training tools at school; depth and strength of scientific and theoretical knowledge
on multimedia training tools and methodology to apply them at school; level of mastering
methods in connection with the use of multimedia training tools to solve typical teaching tasks
of future teachers) and levels of future teachers’ readiness to use multimedia training tools have
been specified. Model for training future teachers to use multimedia training tools has been
theoretically rationalized and experimentally tested, reflecting the structure of professional
competence of future teachers in the use of multimedia training tools.
Keywords: Multimedia training tools, readiness, future teachers, model, professional
competence, use of multimedia training tools.
1. Introduction
Within the informatization of education, of urgency is the creation and use of new
training tools to organize the work of students in a single educational environment and
contributing to education quality enhancement. Such tools include multimedia training
tools, i.e., information sources containing graphical, word, voice, musical, video, photo and
other information in digital form seeking to solve the goals and tasks of modern education.
Multifunctional multimedia training tools enable to place large volume of information;
quick search and access to the required information; unbiased and appropriate knowledge
assessment in students; visual presentation of many complex phenomena and processes;
use of graphic design; co-acquisition of information.
In that connection, utmost realization of education’s informatization tasks requires
training of future teachers to be improved teaching them to use modern multimedia
training tools.
2. Literature Overview
The analysis of researches by Aaron, M., Dicks, D., Ives, C. & Montgomery, B.
(2004), Ezziane, Z. (2007), Garrison, J. A., Schardt, C., & Kochi, J. K. (2000), Graziano
K. J. (2012), Husler, R. P. (1996), Juniu, S. (2003), Magdy F. Iskander, J. Corey Catten,
Rex Jameson, Antony Jones and Albert Balcells (2014), Parshina L. (2014), Pomorov
S.B., Prokhorov S.A., SidorovV.A., Stepanskaya T.M. (2014), Sakenov, D. Zh, (2012),
Timothy Ellis (2004), Wayne Burleson, Aura Ganz, Ian Harris (2013) showed that there
is a great number of studies on professional training of future teachers within education’s
informatization.
It should be noted that in some works (Groth, R., Spickler, D., Bergner, J., Bardzell,
M., (2003), Efimova, E.A. (2011), Rintala, J. (1998)) attention is paid mainly to theoretical
and methodological training of students in information science which allows future teachers
to use information technologies in preparatory school’s academic activity. However
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those studies did not cover on future teachers’ training to use modern training tools, in
particular, multimedia training tools. Thus, formation of future teachers’ readiness to use
multimedia training tools has not been an object of wide research so far which allows to
state the rationale of research in that field.
So, this research’s rationale is determined by contradictions between:
– social need for teachers capable to efficiently carry out professional activity
within informatization of education and with insufficient level of future teachers to use
multimedia training tools required for successful realization of educational, developing
and pedagogic goals of school academic process;
– need to form future teachers’ readiness to use multimedia training tools and
insufficient scientific development of this issue in higher school practice.
In that connection, the research problem is in the need to expose the specifics of future
teachers’ readiness to use multimedia training tools. Based on the above, the objective of
this research is to rationalize, develop and experimentally check the methodology to form
professional readiness in future teachers to use multimedia training tools at school.
3. Methods
Methods of research are determined by its objective. This paper uses a range of
methods compliant with the stages of research:
– analysis of psychological and pedagogical, scientific, scientific and engineering
and methodological literature on the topic of the research;
– analysis of regulations including governmental educational standards of higher
professional education;
– modeling;
– pedagogical experiment;
– questionnaires;
– tests;
– analysis of students’ products;
– processing and interpretation of experimental data.
4. Analysis Result
Future teachers’ readiness to use multimedia training tools is a stable feature of
teacher's personality which determines the ability to solve basic professional pedagogical
tasks through the use of multimedia training tools within multi-subject polyfunctional
pedagogical activity seeking to educate, train and develop children of school age.
Future teachers’ readiness to use multimedia training tools includes the following
structural components:
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– psychological, represented by motives expressed via interests and needs to use
multimedia training tools , pursuance of professional improvement in the use of multimedia
training tools in future teaching activity;
– scientific and theoretical, assuming the aggregate of topic-related methodical
knowledge integrating general and special knowledge in the use of multimedia training
tools;
– technological, represented via a range of skills on arrangement of education of
pupils using multimedia training tools.
Future teachers’ readiness to use multimedia training tools is formed gradually:
1. Decisive is the establishment of motivation to use multimedia training tools at
school and implementation of available competences within professional pedagogical
training;
2. Experience in solution of professional tasks of future school teachers using
multimedia training tools based on general professional content;
3. Improvement of experience in solving professional tasks of future school teachers
using multimedia training tools during the study of methodical disciplines.
The methodology for formation of future teachers readiness to use multimedia
training tools assumes the use of productive teaching methods (project method, method
to solve reasonably selected tools, etc.); use of modern technical and information
teaching tools (computers, multimedia projectors, Internet resources, etc.); arrangement
of academic process based on optimal combination of collective, group and individual
forms of learning activities. In the course of development of the methodology to form
readiness of future teachers to the use of multimedia training tools, specific features of
school teacher’s professional activity are accounted for:
– multiple subjects, making a school teacher master theory and practice in teaching
a few subjects in various areas of knowledge;
– polyfunctionality, meaning exercising a few functions by a school teacher:
teaching, educating and developing pupils; assistance in socialization of pupils, creating
common culture in them; pedagogical consulting for parents, governing and coordinating
training effects of family and school;
– taking the age-relate characteristics of pupils into account presumes the observance
of particular psychological, pedagogical and methodical conditions as well as the use of
health-saving technologies in the arrangement of the academic process.
Levels of readiness of future teachers to use multimedia training tools are as
follows:
I. High;
II. Middle;
III. Low.
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The diagnostics of readiness of future teachers presumes the study of its structural
components and is carried out on the basis of the following criteria:
I. stable motives to the use of multimedia training tools at school;
II. depth and strength of scientific and theoretical knowledge on multimedia training
tools and methodology in connection with their use at school;
III. level of mastering methods to use multimedia training tools in pursuance of
solution of typical teacher’s tasks.
Conceptual characteristic of the components for training future teachers to use
multimedia training tools is represented in Table 1.
Table 1
Conceptual characteristic of the components
for training future teachers to use multimedia training tools
Stages
Criteria
Levels
Components
Component’s content
1
I, II, III
I, II, III
Psychological
Motives expressed by interests and needs to use
multimedia training tools, pursuance of professional
self-improvement in the use of multimedia training
tools in future pedagogical activity.
2
I, II, III
I, II, III
Scientifi c and
theoretical
Aggregate of topic-related methodical knowledge
integrating general and special knowledge in the
use of multimedia training tools: knowing typology
of multimedia training tool, specifi cs of stages of
their development, knowing software opportunities
in creating multimedia training tools, requirements
to multimedia training tools, knowing methodical
aspects of academic process arrangement at school
using multimedia training tools.
3
I, II, III
I, II, III
Operational and
technological
Range of skills on arrangement of education of pupils
using multimedia training tools: setting learning goals
using multimedia training tools; analyzing multimedia
training tools; choosing particular multimedia training
tools; making notes of lessons and off-class lessons
using multimedia training tools; making and using
electronic texts; organizing individual, group and
collective work of children using multimedia training
tools in connection with the content of disciplines
studied at school, etc.
Readiness to professional activity is the initial stage of building professional
competence and therefore for more efficient formation of readiness to use multimedia
training tools in future teachers it is required to be oriented at teacher’s professional
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competence structure as a specialist in the use of multimedia training tools. We specified
the following components of teacher’s professional competences in the use of multimedia
training tools:
– core competences: – using various kinds of information (information competence);
– contacting other parties of educational process in various communicative situations
related to the use of multimedia training tools (communicative competence); – following
social behavioral norms in situations related to the use of multimedia training tools (social
competence);
– basic competences: – choosing multimedia training tools seeking to solve
particular professional tasks; – analysis and assessment of multimedia training tools;
– creating own simple multimedia training tools;
– special competences: – design of academic and training process on various
school subjects using multimedia training tools; – arrangement of training at school using
multimedia training tools.
5. Discussion
The content of components for future teachers training to use multimedia training
tools enabled us to build Model for training future teachers to use multimedia training
tools displayed on Figure 1.
Figure 1. Model for training future teachers to use multimedia training tools.
Notes to Figure 1 Model for training future teachers to use multimedia training tools:
I – Readiness of future teachers to use multimedia training tools; II – Future teachers’ training
components to use multimedia training tools; III – Content of future teachers’ training components t
o use
multimedia training tools; IV – Professional competences; V – Criteria; VI – Levels.
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The field experiment was done in the natural conditions of academic process in the
course of students teaching (control group – traditional methodology, experimental group –
experimental methodology). At the summative stage of the experimental work diagnostics
were done using methodologies seeking to solve the level of formation of readiness to
use multimedia training tools in future teachers. Assessment of future teachers’ level of
readiness to use multimedia training tools in teacher’s professional activity was made via
identification of formation levels of psychological, scientific and theoretical, operational
and technological components of the readiness under research.
The diagnostic tools comprise three units in compliance with structural components
of readiness. In connection with the versatility of results to process data bulks and making
them homogenous the average parameter of readiness to use multimedia training tools
was computed.
In students of the experimental and control groups, the initial level of formation of
readiness to the use of multimedia training tools in future teachers was identified. The
summative experiment showed that the results of distribution by levels of readiness to use
multimedia training tools in future teachers in the experimental and control groups differ
slightly and correspond mainly to the low level (86' of control group’s students and 90'
of the experimental one).
The purpose of the summative experiment was to test Model for training future
teachers to use multimedia training tools taking into account specifics of school teacher’s
activity.
At the final stage of the experiment the final levels of formation in future teachers
of the readiness to use multimedia training tools were identified. Dynamics of level of
readiness to use multimedia training tools and their components in future teachers are
displayed in Table 2.
Table 2
Dynamics of level of readiness to use multimedia training tools in future teachers (')
Levels of readiness
formation
Groups
Control
Experimental
Summative
experiment
Control
experiment
Summative
experiment
Control
experiment
High
0
10
0
60
Middle
14
61
10
40
Low
86
29
90
0
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Comparing the levels of readiness to use multimedia training tools before and
after the summative experiment showed that in the experimental group 60' of tested
persons reached high level of readiness while in control group only 10' did so. Thus,
the implementation of our Model for training future teachers to use multimedia training
tools taking into account specifics of school teacher’s activity enabled to greatly improve
the level of readiness to use multimedia training tools by future teachers. Therefore, the
experimental work conducted confirmed the target pursuing the formation of readiness to
use multimedia training tools in future teachers.
6. Conclusion
The need to organize target training of future teachers to use multimedia training
tools in their professional activities is conditioned by the educational practice needs within
informatization of education.
The rationalized structure of teacher’s professional competence as a specialist in
using multimedia training tools is as follows:
– core competences: information competence; communicative competence; social
competence;
– basic competences: selection, analysis and assessment, creating own simple
multimedia training tools;
– special competences: design, organization.
That approach served as the basis for developing Model for training future teachers
to use multimedia training tools accounting for the specifics of professional activity of a
school teacher (multi-subjects, polyfunctionality, age-related specifics of pupils).
The originality of our research is that, as distinct from the studies by Aaron, M.,
Dicks, D., Ives, C. & Montgomery, B. (2004), Ezziane, Z. (2007), Garrison, J. A., Schardt,
C., & Kochi, J. K. (2000), Graziano K. J. (2012), Husler, R. P. (1996), Juniu, S. (2003),
Magdy F. Iskander, J. Corey Catten, Rex Jameson, Antony Jones and Albert Balcells
(2014), Parshina L. (2014), Pomorov S.B., Prokhorov S.A., Sidorov V.A., Stepanskaya
T.M. (2014), Sakenov, D. Zh, (2012), Timothy Ellis (2004), Wayne Burleson, Aura Ganz,
Ian Harris (2013) we proved that implementation of the developed Model for training
future teachers to use multimedia training tools enables to optimize the students training
process which has been acknowledged in the course of experimental work.
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ELECTIVE DISCIPLINES AS MEANS OF FORMATION
OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE
N.S. Safayev
TGU of Nizami, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Janat Sakenov
Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute,
Kazakhstan, 140000, Pavlodar, Mira Street, 60
Anna Zhantemirova
Pavlodar State University named after S. Toraigyrov,
Kazakhstan, 140008, Pavlodar city, Lomov Street, 64
Abstract
The article examines essential characteristics and specific features, role of elective
disciplines in the formation of professional competence of students as future teachers. Important
and promising characteristics of the content of professional competence of students as future
teachers have been studied and theoretically justified. We have theoretically justified, practically

developed and experimentally tested an original model of formation of professional competence
of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines in conditions of a teaching
institute, including criteria, rates and levels of performance of this process. Within the conducted

experiment, we have empirically tested and proved the pedagogical efficiency of the developed
original model of formation of professional competence of students as future teachers when
studying elective disciplines, the role of elective disciplines as a means of formation of professio
nal
competence of students as future teachers has also been proved.
Keywords: Elective disciplines, role, means, professional competence, students, future
teacher, formation of professional competence.
1. Introduction
The goals of educational programmes of institutes of higher education is training
bachelors as specialists of new formation who are able to solve socially important tasks
of education and upbringing creatively and professionally, who possess professional
competence and can conduct teaching activities creatively in the institutions of education
and upbringing. Present academic value and specificity of educational programmes
at teacher training institutes of higher education shows in the content and catalogue
of elective disciplines which gives a student an opportunity of providing educational
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services in polylingual trajectory; introduction of dual learning elements into the process
of learning; flexibility and update of educational content; development of professional
skills and competence focused on an educational field of activity taking into account the
needs of society and economy. Elective disciplines are optional disciplines the content of
which allows to satisfy professional interests in accordance with personal inclinations.
A subject chosen by a student becomes mandatory. As a whole, regional component of
professional education and elective disciplines secure knowledge, skills and abilities of
future teachers. Elective disciplines, in their turn, are a list of educational disciplines
which are approved by educational institutions and form an optional component that
students use to form their individual curriculum within the scope of established credits.
The list of elective disciplines is discussed and approved by Education Board of a higher
educational institution. Registrar Office of a higher educational institution works out a
catalogue of elective disciplines based on the list of elective disciplines. The process of
signing students up for elective disciplines is organised by the Registrar Office with the
methodical and consultative help of departments, dean's offices and advisors. Student’s
individual curriculum is formed after the enrolment for elective disciplines is over.
Elective disciplines are selected under the supervision of an advisor. The advisor presents
students with alternatives to each subject from the catalogue of elective disciplines,
consults them on the succession of studying the disciplines. Therefore, it is obvious that
elective disciplines are of great importance in providing knowledge, skills and abilities for
future teachers, in formation of their professional competence as future teachers.
The analysis of works by Arsamerzaev G.A., Dauletova I.G., Sakenov J.Z.,
Toktarbayev G.-S. D. (2014), Chown A. (1994), Uzakbaeva, S., B. Baimukhanbetov, K.
Berkimbaev, B. Mukhamedzhanov and R. Pralieva. (2013), Gifford S. (1994), Nicolas
Fernandez, Valerie Dory, Louis-Georges SteMarie, Monique Chaput, Bernard Charlin
and Andree Boucher (2012) shows that one of the priority areas of modern education is
formation of professional competence of students. The conducted analysis of academic
literature on the issue of formation of professional competence of students is indicative
of growing scientific and methodical interest to this problem. It should be noted that
no system research of the problem of essential correlation between elective disciplines
and formation of professional competence of students of a teacher training institute has
been conducted yet. Comprehensive expertise of scientific research by Albekova A.S.,
Rezuanova G.K., Muratbekova A.M., Kukenova G.A. (2014), Asenova N.S., Zhumabaeva
Z.E., Kenenbaeva M.A., Sakenov D.Zh., Toktarbaev D.G. (2013), David Carr and Don
Skinner. (2009), Hutchinson D. (1994), Kenenbaeva, M.A, A.Sh.Tleulesova. (2013),
Kul'kov, S.A., (2013), Oreck B. (2004), Zhaparova, B.M., etc. (2013) shows that teacher
training institutes of higher education lack the required level of scientifically based
organisation of teaching process which favours the influence of elective disciplines as
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an educational means on the formation of professional competence of students as future
teachers. Thus, the goal of our research is to justify the role of elective disciplines in the
formation of professional competence of students as future teachers.
2. Methods
The methodological basis of the research is the theory of personality development;
the theory of educational content; modern theories and concepts of higher professional
education; propositions on the essence of integral educational process; pedagogical
research on the nature of teacher’s competence; the research on the formation of professional
competence of teacher; ideas of system, cultural, personal, activity, humanistic, axiological,
acmeological approaches; the idea of subjective activity of a personality in the process of
its life activity; development of technological approaches and variable technologies of
higher education; regulations on elective courses, catalogue of elective disciplines. The
methods of the research are the following: to achieve the desired goal of justifying the role
of elective disciplines in the formation of professional competence of students as future
teachers we used: theoretical research methods: study and analysis of philosophical,
sociological, pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem of professional
competence research; conceptual term construct; scientists’ approaches to the issue of
elective disciplines and professional competence; synthesis, comparison, generalisation,
content analysis; empirical research methods: study and generalisation of the experience
in formation of professional competence of a student in the system of higher professional
education in the process of studying elective disciplines; conversations with students,
lecturers, teachers; questionnaire surveys, observation; method of generalisation of
independent characteristics; study of the results of students’ creative activities; method
of mathematical and statistical data procession; modelling, pedagogical experiment on
the research of the role of elective disciplines as a means of the formation of professional
competence of students as future teachers.
3. Results
As the analysis of research by Berkimbaev, K.M., S.T. Nyshanova, B.T. Kerimbaeva
and G.P. Meyrbekova (2012), Claire Kramsch (2006), Johnson, M., Cowin, L.S., Wilson, I.
and H. Young, H. (2012), Ishanov, P., Bekmambetova, Z. (2013), Kathleen A. Brown-Rice
and Susan Furr. (2013), Kerimbaeva, B.T. (2012), Rakhimbekova G.O., Baigozhina Z.M.,
Abdrakhmanova A.Y., Samatanova A.R., Orazakova R.K., Nurtayeva Z. Z., Sakenov J.Z.
(2015), Sakenov, D. Zh, etc. (2012) shows, the existing studies of professional training of
students single out the conditions, factors and content variability of professional training
of students. We believe that the research data allows us to state that there is possible
influence of elective disciplines on professional training of students as future teachers, on
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the process of development and formation of their professional competence. It should be
mentioned that the range of a student’s professional needs in the formation of professional
competence as a future teacher within the process of studying elective disciplines remains
under-investigated and unexplored. Judging from the established scientific problem, the
formation of professional competence of students as future teachers is obviously necessary,
but the process of its development and formation within the process of studying elective
disciplines requires the examination and justification of the content of professional
competence concept.
Professional competence of students as future teachers is a description of professional
and personal characteristics of a student, including professional competencies, which
ensures effective and reasonable professional activities in different areas and segments of
education in accordance with legal and moral standards established in the contemporary
society, distinguishing the availability of organisational abilities, skills of analysis and
prediction of teaching activity results, knowledge of the most effective and reasonable
methods of its implementation, as well as professional mobility (Albekova A.S., Rezuanova
G.K., Muratbekova A.M., Kukenova G.A. (2014), Sundburg L. (2001), Niyazova G.Z.,
Kamalbek Meirbekovich Berkimbaev K.M., Rabiga Esimovna Pralieva R.S., Dinara
Kadirkhanovna Berdi D.K., Alina Kuandykovna Bimaganbetova A.K. (2013). Such
understanding of professional competence of future teachers creates a scientific basis for
the development of the content of elective disciplines as a means of formation of professional
training of students. However, as the analysis of psychoeducational and methodical
literature and the works by Schantz, E.A. (2012), Shavalieva Z.Sh., Ahmuldinova A.N.,
Isinbayeva K.G., Ayapbergenova G.S., Alibayeva Zh.E., Sakenov D.Zh. (2013), Claire
Kramsch (2006), Asenova N.S., Zhumabaeva Z.E., Kenenbaeva M.A., Sakenov D.Zh.,
Toktarbaev D.G. (2013), the development of elective disciplines as a means of formation
of professional competence of future teachers remains out of view of modern scientific
research, and, as a result, their specificity as compared with major disciplines is not taken
into account. Present insufficient theoretical development of this scientific problem has
led to rather low results of elective disciplines as a means of formation of professional
competence of future teachers.
The main element of the development of the content of elective disciplines as a
means of formation of professional competence of students as future teachers is formation
of the experience of professional activities of students of a higher education institution.
We understand the development of elective disciplines as a means of formation of
professional competence of students as future teachers as the process of the development
and detalisation of the system of professional competencies of future teachers, their
experience of professional and research activities in order to ensure the integrity and
purposefulness of an elective subject itself. The process of the development of elective
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disciplines as a means of formation of professional competence of students as future
teachers as the basis of our research is an activity aimed at the development, explication
and formation of the following criteria and rates, levels of professional competence of
students as future teachers:
– educational and cognitive (assimilation of knowledge, level of professional
literacy, studying a set of concepts, categories, rules; ready to use theoretical knowledge
for generation of new ideas; able to implement educational programmes of major and
elective courses in different educational institutions);
– personal and motivational (qualities and characteristics of a person, tolerance,
psychological readiness; realises social significance of future profession, is motivated to
perform professional activities; ready to be responsible for the results of their professional
activities; knows methods of and is ready for professional self-knowledge and self-
development);
– empirical (learning professionally-oriented actions, able to organise the work
efficiently, use of knowledge in non-standard situations, skills of planning, organizing and
implementing professional activities, ability to use modern information means (phone,
fax, computer, printer, modem, copy machine, etc.) and information technologies (audio
and video recording, interactive whiteboard, e-mail, mass media, Internet);
– levels of professional competence of students as future teachers: high, medium,
low (Albekova A.S., Rezuanova G.K., Muratbekova A.M., Kukenova G.A. (2014), Ishanov,
P., Bekmambetova, Z. (2013), Niyazova G.Z., Kamalbek Meirbekovich Berkimbaev K.M.,
Rabiga Esimovna Pralieva R.S., Dinara Kadirkhanovna Berdi D.K., Alina Kuandykovna
Bimaganbetova A.K. (2013).
Comprehensive analysis of the scientific problem of the study of the role of elective
disciplines as a means of formation of professional competence of students as future
teachers allowed us to develop and justify an original Model of formation of professional
competence of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines, including
criteria, rates, performance levels of the process. The following elements are to be singled
out during the process of developing and designing the Model of formation of professional
competence of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines: action-
procedural, educational-cognitive, communicative-informational. Action-procedural
element is based on a set of practical skills and abilities of students as future teachers
which form the basis of professional competence when studying elective disciplines.
Educational-cognitive element of professional competence describes, first of all,
intellectual development and specifics of cognitive activity of future teachers, which also
form professional competencies when studying elective disciplines. Communicative-
informational element describes the tactics and strategy of professional behaviour of future
teachers, which also form professional competencies when studying elective disciplines.
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3.1. Originality results.
In our opinion, scientific grounds of the process of
formation of professional competence of students as future teachers when studying
elective disciplines should call for the development of an original model, the structure of
which contains professional competencies and which reflects the required professional
characteristics of students as future teachers. Unique Model of formation of professional
competence of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines that we have
designed is an integral, interrelated process all the unique elements of which are aimed at
the achievement of the desired goal – formation of professional competence of students as
future teachers as a result of studying the catalogue of elective disciplines (see figure 1).
Figure 1. Model of formation of professional competence
of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines
Figure 1 explanation. Model of formation of professional competence of students as
future teachers when studying elective disciplines. This Model of formation of professional
competence of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines shows
interrelated basic elements of the process of the formation of professional competence of
students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines:
I – the process of the formation of professional competence of students as future
teachers when studying elective disciplines;
II – criteria and rates, levels of professional competence of students as future
teachers when studying elective disciplines such as educational and cognitive (assimilation
of knowledge, level of professional literacy, studying a set of concepts, categories, rules);
personal and motivational (qualities and characteristics of a person, tolerance, pedagogical
readiness); empirical (learning professionally-oriented actions, able to organise the work
efficiently, use of knowledge in non-standard situations, skills of planning, organizing
and implementing professional activities, ability to use modern information means);
levels: high, medium, low;
III – elective disciplines (the list of educational disciplines in the optional component)
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as optional disciplines the content of which allows to satisfy professional interests in
accordance with the content of the subject and personal professional needs of students);
IV – elements of formation of professional competence of students as future teachers
when studying elective disciplines, such as procedural, cognitive, communicative-
informational; action-procedural element is based on a set of practical skills and abilities
of students as future teachers which form the basis of professional competence when
studying elective disciplines; educational-cognitive element of professional competence
describes, first of all, intellectual development and specifics of cognitive activity of future
teachers, which also form professional competencies when studying elective disciplines.
communicative-informational element describes the tactics and strategy of professional
behaviour of future teachers, which also form professional competencies when studying
elective disciplines;
V – individual curriculum of students as future teachers, as a dynamic element of the
model, it is formed during the assignment of the mandatory part of the course curriculum
and optional disciplines. Disciplines chosen from other curricula of the student’s faculty
or from different ones can also be added to the student’s individual curriculum. The
formed curriculum can be viewed, analysed and edited. Characteristics set for elective
disciplines in the curriculum (the number of current and cumulative credits, the number
of hours of workload of various kinds, etc.) can be shown for notes on the disciplines;
VI – professional competencies of students as future teachers when studying elective
disciplines, ensuring effective and reasonable implementation of professional activities in
different areas and segments of education, availability of organisational abilities, skills of
pedagogical analysis and prediction of teaching activity results, knowledge of the most
effective and reasonable methods of its implementation.
4. Discussion
To justify the role of elective disciplines as an educational means of the formation
of professional competence of students as future teachers, during the experiment
we used methods of conversations with students, lecturers, teachers; questionnaire
surveys, observation; method of generalisation of independent characteristics; study of
the results of students’ creative activities; methods of mathematical and statistical data
procession. 31 students participated in the experiment, there were divided into control
(15 students) and experimental (16 students) group. Elective disciplines were used only
in the experimental group. During the experimental check of the Model of formation of
professional competence of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines,
also analysing the dynamics of the students’ attitude as future teachers to the content of
elective disciplines, the following justifications can be made: at the statement stage of the
experiment there were 47' of students with cognitive interest in the control group and
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43' in the experimental group, at the end of the forming experiment it increased to 45'
in the control group and 90' in the experimental group. The comparison of these results
has shown that improvement by this criterion by 45' allows to positively justify the
efficiency of the experimental work. Comprehensive analysis of the results of the forming
experiment allows to detect the dynamics of the process of the formation of professional
competencies of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines. At the
statement stage of the experiment there were 15' of students with highly developed
professional competencies in the control group and 17' in the experimental group, at the
end of the forming experiment it increased to 18' in the control group and 51' in the
experimental group. On that basis we believe that improvement by this criterion by 37' in
the experimental group indicates the efficiency of the experimental work on the formation of
professional competence of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines.
Comprehensive and thorough analysis of the results of statement and forming stages of
scientific experiment has proved that in the process of experimental work improvement by
all criteria, rates, level of the Model of formation of professional competence of students
as future teachers when studying elective disciplines had been found. Also, in the process
of pedagogical interpretation of the results and identification of the level of formation of
professional competence of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines
conducted with the use of point rating control system we have detected positive tendency
towards the increase of the level of formation of professional competence of students as
future teachers when studying elective disciplines. This scientific statement was proved
by the results of students’ progress analysis in experimental and control groups before and
after the scientific experiment (see figure 2).
Figure 2. Diagnostics of the level of formation of professional competence
of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines
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As we have mentioned before, the number of students with highly developed
professional competence in the experimental groups increased after the experiment by
35', the number of students who achieved means level increased by 11', the number of
students with low level decreased by 47'. The results of the control groups show that the
number of students with highly developed professional competence remained the same
(16'), as well as with means level (2'), while the low level decreased by 2'. The received
data prove the high effectiveness of the suggested Model of formation of professional
competence of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines.
Thus, the conducted research has proved that consecutive implementation of the
chosen elements of the Model of formation of professional competence of students as
future teachers when studying elective disciplines, their interrelation in the process of
the formation of professional competence of students as future teachers when studying
elective disciplines, specific and regular use of the developed Model of formation of
professional competence of students as future teachers when studying elective disciplines
influenced the change in the levels of formation of professional competencies of students
in the experimental groups.
5. Conclusions and recommendations
Scientific analysis of exploration degree of the problem of studying elective
disciplines as a means of the formation of professional competence of students as future
teachers allowed to identify and justify main characteristics of the process of formation
of professional competencies of students as future teachers when studying elective
disciplines.
In the process of the examination of the role of elective disciplines as a means of the
formation of professional competence of students as future teachers essential characteristics
of the content of elective disciplines as optional disciplines, catalogue and content of
elective disciplines allow to diversify and expand professional interests of students as
future teachers in accordance with the content of the subject and personal professional
needs of students. In distinction from the research of Albekova A.S., Rezuanova G.K.,
Muratbekova A.M., Kukenova G.A. (2014), Zhaparova, B.M., etc. (2013), Kul'kov, S.A.
(2013), Gifford S. (1994), we have experimentally developed, testes and implemented an
original model of formation of professional competence of students as future teachers
when studying elective disciplines in conditions of teacher training institute, including
criteria and rates, levels of the process performance. In the process of the experiment
the Model of formation of professional competence of students as future teachers when
studying elective disciplines has been scientifically tested. During the research, the
efficiency of the developed Model of formation of professional competence of students as
future teachers when studying elective disciplines and its elements ensuring the formation
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of professional competence of students as future teachers has been experimentally proved.
The developed Model of formation of professional competence of students as future
teachers when studying elective disciplines is recommended for practical use at teacher
training institutes of higher education.
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ABOUT INFORMATION COMPETENCE
A.M. Zakal
Universität Hamburg
20148, Hamburg, Mittelweg, 177, Germany
Janat Sakenov
Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute,
Kazakhstan, 140000, Pavlodar, Mira Street, 60
Elizaveta Shnaider, Fatima Zhantemirova
School-gymnasium No. 2 of Gafu Kairbekov, Astana
Abstract
The current study focuses on the research topic of creating a theoretical model of
development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses. In order
to examine specific features of the theoretical model of development of information competence
among students enrolled in elective courses, we performed an analysis of formation of the concept
“information competence of students”. We investigated and provided theoretical substantiation for
meaningful characteristics of information competence of students. We developed and validated the
theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective
courses, including criteria, parameters and efficiency levels of this process. We recommend to
implement the theoretical model of development of information competence among students
enrolled in elective courses for development of higher educational programs.
Keywords: Theoretical model, development, information competence, students, elective
courses.
1. Introduction
Information competence is an essential component of educational development
at the current stage of social progress. The emerging role of information in the social
life manifests itself in two ways – increasing volume of information and transformation
of information into the most important resource for development of the society. Both
processes equally influence the model of educational system; therefore, they should be
taken into consideration in the course of its modernization, which leads to emergence of
a topical issue of promoting information competence among all members of the society.
One of the trends in modernization of education is prioritizing the competence
approach. The competence phenomenon is discussed in the following studies: Albekova
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et al. (2014), Asenova et al. (2013), Berkimbaev et al. (2013), Gifford (1994), Brown-Rice,
& Furr (2013), Fernandez et al. (2012), Hutchinson (1994), Sundburg (2001), White (1959),
and others. These researchers consider the competence approach to be an approach focused
on the results of education that are interpreted as an ability of a person to act in various
problematic situations, rather than as total amount of acquired knowledge. Moreover, the
results of education are admitted to be valuable beyond the educational system; therefore,
such approach allows to adjust education to the demands of labor market, to satisfy the
need of employers for training of informationally competent specialists.
According to the studies of Berkimbaev et al. (2012), Chown (1994), Kramsch
(2006), Day (1994), Johnson et al. (2012), Kerimbaeva (2012), Niyazova et al. (2013), Oreck
(2004), Otepova, & Ilyassova (2014), Sakenov et al. (2012), the major characteristics of the
competence approach include:
– broad practical orientation with an emphasis on training for the activity, including
both professional skills and techniques and more widely applicable ones, such as social
personal skills, developed in the context of professional training;
– systemic and integrative approach, focused on systemic development of the
expected results of training over the whole educational program and individual courses,
their integrity, aimed at the major goal – development of a competent person;
– comprehensiveness, i.e., development of the expected results of training together
with the achievement criteria, control techniques, and essential conditions for enabling
the students to accomplish the expected training results;
– consistency with an emphasis on regular monitoring and adjustment of the
training results, processes and means for achieving these results in order to improve the
educational program;
– thorough consideration of values and demands of students, state, and society;
– disclosure with an emphasis on transparence and clarity of goals of the educational
program, involvement of the parties in development and adjustment of the program goals,
consistency of goals with national and international guidelines.
The competence approach implies the assessment of a student’s ability to apply
the acquired knowledge to practical tasks. It should be noted that students should be able
to process various types of information, using computers and other technical means, to
organize their own information activity, to be able to implement new information and
communication technologies, etc. We should work toward enabling our young people
to both obtain and create new knowledge. These days the most precious knowledge is
creative thinking, ability to process knowledge, to produce new solutions, information
technologies and innovations. Therefore, the most important task is to develop such
qualities of students as proper perception and rapid reaction to new factors, self-sufficiency
and promptness in making decisions, willingness to conduct egalitarian communication,
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ability to quickly adapt to the information society. The major elements of information
competence of undergraduate students include informational scope, theoretical
knowledge in information technologies, system of knowledge, skills and techniques,
concerning search for information, its analysis and implication, practical skills of using
contemporary information technologies. Considering the specified elements, we believe
that information competence of undergraduate students is the most important component
of general professional competence among students, being an integrated, dynamic
evolution of personality, marked by rational style in information activities, related to
mastering new information technologies, and capable of creative performance within the
educational system. The other side of the research topic of development of information
competence among undergraduate students is its connection with the elective courses.
Elective courses are the courses that students are free to choose in order to satisfy their
professional interest. In spite of a comprehensive range of studies (Asenova et al., 2013;
Kul'kov, 2013; Murzalinova, & Koleva, 2012; Henner, 2004; Utegenov et al., 2014), which
are, undoubtedly, of great theoretical and practical value, one should note that development
of information competence in higher educational institutions is an issue, still open for
theoretical conceptualization and experimental studies. The list of unsolved questions
includes the issues of pedagogic components of information competence among students,
specific features of its development over participation in the elective courses; the issues of
creating an effective theoretical model of development of information competence among
students enrolled in elective courses also remain topical and need to be elaborated.
The comprehensive analysis of the current state of educative practice allows to
reveal the major discrepancy between the emergence of shared information space due to
expanding implementation of new information technologies in professional activities, and
underexplored issue of development of information competence among students enrolled
in elective courses within the system of higher professional education.
Thus, the analysis of the studies by Albekova et al. (2014), Asenova et al. (2013),
Henner (2004), and comprehension of higher education practices allowed us to update
the major controversy between the objective need for the development of information
competence among students enrolled in elective courses and insufficient degree of
scientific development of theoretical basis for development of information competence
among students enrolled in elective courses within the system of higher professional
education and the relevant model of development of information competence among
students enrolled in elective courses.
The problem range of the study was integrated into the research topic, which can
be defined as following: what is the content of the theoretical model of development of
information competence among students enrolled in elective courses?
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The current study was aimed at solving the problem of development of information
competence among students enrolled in elective courses.
2. Methods
The methodological basis of the study included:
– a set of systemic, competence, learner- and activity-centered, informational
methodological approaches;
– theoretical approaches to creation and development of educational systems and
occurring innovative processes;
– methodical approaches to studying professionalism and modelling professional
activities.
The theoretical basis of the study generally includes concepts, ideas, conceptions and
theories. Philosophical, psychological and pedagogical ideas and conceptions of human
essence and nature, social, cultural and historical causation of personality development
and its major part in the activity process, general scientific concepts of the central part of
education in the social system, conceptions of informatization of society and education
comprise fundamental background for our research.
Study methods: in order to solve the defined task of creating a theoretical model
of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses,
we implemented theoretical methods of research, such as studying and analyzing
philosophical, informational, pedagogical and psychological literature on the research
topic; contrastive and comparative analysis, modelling, scientific forecasting and design;
synthesis, comparison, generalization, analysis.
3. Results
Information competence of students as an integrated, dynamic evolution of
personality, marked by rational style in information activities, related to mastering new
information technologies, and capable of creative performance within the educational
system, is closely related to obtaining, processing and transmitting information, turning
it into knowledge, using information resources and technologies, activities within the
information society.
The issues of development of information competence of students as a personal
quality, of shaping the competence of a specialist. The studies of Utegenov et al. (2014),
Henner (2004), Onalbek et al. (2013) and others particularly distinguish information
competence of students as a key feature, ensuring almost every type of activities and
necessary for professional self-fulfillment of a person. Certain authors define information
competence of students as a goal of professional training and an essential component of
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professional competence (Murzalinova, & Koleva, 2012; Kerimbaeva, 2012; Dobrova,
2009 and others).
We believe that information competence of students comprise a basis for conscious
choice, formation of opinion, making decisions, and taking informed and responsible
actions:
– to reveal and define the unknown;
– to identify and organize information, to provide access to information resources
(including search for information and knowledge in cyberspace, in global educational
network);
– to assess quality and relevance of certain information, as well as reliability and
authenticity of information resources;
– to organize knowledge and information.
Among the researchers in the field of theory and practice of information technology
training, the following papers are focused on the issues of development of information
competence among students: Murzalinova, & Koleva (2012), Kerimbaeva (2012), Henner
(2004) and others. These studies include developing of information competence of students
mostly with computer technologies; therefore, information competence of the students is
assessed from the perspective of the level of the person’s capability to master information
technologies.
In the present state of the art of pedagogics many researchers (Berkimbaev et
al., 2013; Dobrova, 2009 and others) have controversial definitions of the “information
competence of students” concept.
The results of the analysis allowed us to define the attributive features of information
competence of students that make it a unique, peculiar, substantive phenomenon:
– skills of unassisted search, analysis and selection of necessary information,
ability to organize, transform, preserve and transmit it with real objects and information
technologies;
– new literacy, including the skills of active unassisted processing of information
by the person, of making fundamentally new decisions in unforeseen situations, using
technological means;
– personal ability to search, select, analyze, organize, present and transmit
information with no external assistance;
– integrative personal quality – complex formation of knowledge, skills, and abilities
of the subject concerning information, information and communication technologies,
together with the experience in using them, as well as ability to improve their own
knowledge and skills, to make new decisions under changing conditions or in unforeseen
situations, using new technological means;
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– personal mental state, integrating theoretical knowledge on sources of information
and ability to work with information, presented in different forms, and the ability to
implement new information technology with no assistance;
– complex personal and psychological formation, based on integration of theoretical
knowledge, practical skills, related to innovative technologies, and a certain set of personal
qualities;
– professionally valuable quality of mastering the basic skills of working with
information;
– set of personal qualities of the subject, enabling them to achieve strong performance
in their activities under conditions of rapidly changing informational infrastructure of the
company together with global trends in informational behavior of people;
Broadening volume and essence of the concept of information competence of
students: from domain trends to ability, from personal quality to personal state, formation
within the personality structure; from domain to professional activities – reflects dynamic
response of conceptual framework of pedagogics to more and more complex demands of
information society.
The controversy lies in the fact that the existing principles of development of
information competence among students responds less rapidly to promptly altering
conditions of information society, thus narrowing the educational yield to skills of working
with information. For instance, key required information competence of students, which
defines the target competence, implies the ability to feel familiar with information and
knowledge, to search, analyze, select, transform, preserve, interpret and transmit it without
external assistance, using real technical objects and information technologies.
Therefore, we will define information competence of students as an integrative
personal quality, reflecting the process of selection, assimilation, processing,
transformation and generation of information into a specific type of domain-specific
knowledge, which promotes formation of experience of information and communication
activities; comprehensive actualization of this experience during the learning process
motivates readiness and ability of students to transform information into knowledge, with
potential self-education, self-improvement and self-fulfillment of the person in modern
information society. The sequence of operations with information can be traced in this
definition, allowing us to structure the process of development of the examined competence
of students in the course of modelling. Such understanding of information competence of
students provides scientific basis for development of programs of elective courses. The
main component of development of content of elective courses as a tool of formation of
information competence among students is providing experience of informational activity
among undergraduate students.
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3.1. Originality results.
Our study includes theoretical substantiation, design
and presentation of the Theoretical model of development of information competence
among students enrolled in elective courses. Any pedagogical process should be based on
comprehensive approach, reproducibility and efficiency of which completely depend on
consistency and quality of organization of this process. Due to these considerations, we
used comprehensive approach as a foundation for the Theoretical model of development
of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses (see Figure 1).
Figure 1. Theoretical model of development
of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses
Comment on Figure 1. Theoretical model of development of information competence
among students enrolled in elective courses. Current Theoretical model of development of
information competence among students enrolled in elective courses represents interaction
between major elements of the process of development of information competence among
students enrolled in elective courses:
I – process of development of information competence among students enrolled in
elective courses
II – Destination block of development of information competence among students
enrolled in elective courses.
III – Functional block of development of information competence among students
enrolled in elective courses.
IV – Evaluation block of development of information competence among students
enrolled in elective courses.
V – Organization block of development of information competence among students
enrolled in elective courses.
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VI – Result of development of information competence of students enrolled in
elective courses: built-up information competence of students.
Elective courses (Informatics, Information Technologies, Methodology of
Informatization of Educational Process, Information Systems) – optional disciplines with
the program allowing to satisfy informational needs according with the subject of the
discipline and personal professional demands of the students.
4. Discussion
Information competence of students is an integrative personal quality, reflecting
the process of selection, assimilation, processing, transformation and generation
of information in the course of studying elective disciplines into a specific type of
domain-specific knowledge, which promotes formation of experience of information
and communication activities. Information competence of students is comprehensive
actualization of information experience during the learning process, motivating readiness
and ability of students to transform information into knowledge, with potential self-
education, self-improvement and self-fulfillment of the person in modern information
society. The sequence of operations with information can be traced in this direction,
allowing us to structure the process of development of the examined competence of
students in the course of modelling. Such understanding of information competence of
students provides scientific basis for development of programs of elective courses. The
main component of development of content of elective courses as a tool of formation
of information competence among students is providing experience of informational
activity among undergraduate students. We use this approach as a foundation for the
structure of the Theoretical model of development of information competence among
students enrolled in elective courses. Theoretical model of development of information
competence among students enrolled in elective courses includes the following blocks:
destination, conceptual, functional, evaluation, and organizational blocks. The Theoretical
model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective
courses allows extensive implementation of level-based approach to mastering the system
of information competence in the course of studying elective disciplines; promotes
organization of information activities in the course of studying elective disciplines;
provides organization of information learning activities in the course of studying elective
disciplines through realization of self-control.
5. Conclusion
Distinction and scientific novelty of our study lies in determination and
specification of comprehensive approach to the process of development of information
competence among students enrolled in elective courses. Systemic approach allowed us
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to develop and validate the structure, blocks and essence of the Theoretical model of
development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses. We
methodologically defined and theoretically substantiated the conditions of organization
of information learning activities of students in higher educational institutions that will
promote effective implementation of the Theoretical model of development of information
competence among students enrolled in elective courses. In the course of research, we
elaborated the concept of “information competence”, defining it as an integrative personal
quality, reflecting the process of selection, assimilation, processing, transformation and
generation of information in the course of studying elective disciplines into a specific type
of domain-specific knowledge, which promotes formation of experience of information
and communication activities. The established Theoretical model of development of
information competence among students enrolled in elective courses contributes to further
evolution of theoretical pedagogics in the system of higher education and methodology
of professional training of undergraduate students, provides basis for prospective studies
on the research topic of development of information competence of undergraduate
students. In contrast with the studies by Dobrova (2009), Zhaparova et al. (2013),
Kul'kov (2013), Gifford (1994), Berkimbaev et al. (2013), Rakhimbekova et al. (2015),
Murzalinova, & Koleva, (2012), Kerimbaeva, (2012), Kramsch (2006), Henner (2004),
our research provides an established Theoretical model of development of information
competence among students enrolled in elective courses, the structure of which implies
proper conditions for renovation of methodological materials and guidelines, educational
programs, courses of lectures, practical classes, laboratory courses, ensuring effective
process of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective
courses. We recommend to implement the established Theoretical model of development
of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses for practical use
in higher educational institutions.
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FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS
A.F. Filatova
OMGPU, Omsk, Russia
Janat Sakenov
Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute,
Kazakhstan, 140000, Pavlodar, Mira Street, 60
Abstract
The article presents an analysis of the problem of professional competence; a methodological
basis of forming professional competence of college students as future teachers is established.
The essence of professional competence is defined. The structure has been experimentally proved
and developed, the contents, criteria and levels of professional competence have been defined.
The effectiveness of the identified methodological basis of professional training, that provide the
forming of professional competence of students. A methodological model of forming of professional
competence of college students as future teachers has been theoretically proved, practically
developed and experimentally approbated. In the process of the experiment, the pedagogical
effectiveness of the developed methodological model of forming professional competence of
students in the process of their college professional training has been empirically tested and
proved.
Keywords: Methods, professional competence, students, forming, methodological basis,
professional competence of students as future teachers, forming of professional competence.
1. Introduction
The requirements to the quality of education that have grown in the conditions of its
structural restructuration and integration into the world community considerably change
the level of social expectations in relation to the effectiveness of the whole complex
of higher education. Passing to the competence-oriented education is a natural step in
modernization of the system of higher professional education that enables us to resolve
contradictions between the requirements of the state and the employer to its quality, and
the developing labor markets, and actual results. The relevance of the problem is by the
fact that this approach has been established in the project of the new standard of higher
professional education that is also oriented at acquiring new competences by college
graduates. A student`s professional competence is a dynamic category; it develops, it is
determined by a definite situation, and in this situation professional activities are going
on. Researches Arsamerzaev G.A., Dauletova I.G., Sakenov J.Z., Toktarbayev G.-S.D.
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(2014), Asenova N.S., Zhumabaeva Z.E., Kenenbaeva M.A., Sakenov D.Zh., Toktarbaev
D.G. (2013), Baigozhina Z., Zhakibayeva G., Sakenov J.Z., Zavalko N., Nurtayeva Z. Z.,
Tasbulatova G.T.(2014), Berkimbaev, K., M. Akeshova, A. Meirbekov and G. Meirbekova,
(2013), Chown A.(1994) see the main difficulty of forming professional competence of
students as future teachers in the fact of this process being a multi-level one. In examining
works of Berkimbaev, K.M. and B.T. Kerimbaeva, (2012), Berkimbaev, K.M., S.T.
Nyshanova, B.T. Kerimbaeva and G.P. Meyrbekova, (2012), Claire Kramsch, (2006), David
Carr and Don Skinner, (2009), Day Ch. (1994), Johnson, M., Cowin, L.S., Wilson, I. and
H. Young, H., (2012), a contradiction was discovered between the variety of conceptual
approaches to the considered problem field, and the fact that the methodological basis fot
the forming of professional competence of future teachers has not been developed well
enough I the real educational process.
Professional activities of a teacher are characterized by an underdevelopment of his/
her professional status and responsibilities. Researches (educationalist and methodologists)
Gifford S. (1994), Berkimbaev, K.M. and B.T. Kerimbaeva, (2012), Hutchinson D. (1994),
Ishanov, P., Bekmambetova, Z., (2013) do not pay attention to the conditions that make for
effective forming of professional competence of students as future teachers. No theoretical
basis of such training has been elaborated, no methodological basis making for effectiveness
of forming of professional competence of future teachers have been discovered. An
analysis of works by Kathleen A. Brown-Rice and Susan Furr, (2013), Kerimbaeva, B.T.,
(2012), Nicolas Fernandez, Valerie Dory, Louis-Georges SteMarie, Monique Chaput,
Bernard Charlin and Andree Boucher, (2012), Niyazova G.Z., Kamalbek Meirbekovich
Berkimbaev K.M., Rabiga Esimovna Pralieva R.S., Dinara Kadirkhanovna Berdi D.K.,
Alina Kuandykovna Bimaganbetova A.K.(2013), Oreck B., (2004), Rakhimbekova G.O.,
Baigozhina Z.M., Abdrakhmanova A.Y., Samatanova A.R., Orazakova R.K., Nurtayeva
Z. Z., Sakenov J.Z.(2015) shows that forming the professional competence of students as
future teachers becomes one of the main directions of modern pedagogical education.
An analysis of scientific works by Sakenov, D. Zh, etc., (2012), Schantz, E.A,
(2012), Sundburg L. (2001), Uzakbaeva, S., B. Baimukhanbetov, K. Berkimbaev, B.
Mukhamedzhanov and R. Pralieva, (2013) shows that the level of scientific organization
of the educational process and methodology making for forming the students` competence
as future teachers, is not high enough. Some research has been done in this direction, but
the results have not been generalized and systematized.
This obvious contradiction defines the relevance of research of the problem. The
problem consists in establishing of a methodological basis of forming professional
competence of students.
The aim of the research is theoretical proving and practical realization of a
methodological basis making for forming of professional competence of students as future
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teachers. The necessity of forming professional competence of students as future teachers
as a part of their professional readiness, is quite evident nowadays, but the methodological
basis of its forming in the educational process not being proved requires a more exact
definition of the concept itself.
2. Methods
Methods of research: To reach the goal of theoretical proof and practical realization
of the methodological basis that makes for the forming of professional competence
of students as future teachers the following methods were used: Theoretical research
methods: studying and analysis of philosophic, sociological, pedagogical and psychological
literature on the problem of research, terminology and theoretical approaches to the
problem; synthesis, comparison, generalization, content-analysis. Empirical methods of
research: studying and generalization of the experience of work in forming professional
competence of a student in the system of higher education, talks with students, college
professors and school teachers4 questionnaires, observation, method of generalization
of independent characteristics, mathematical and statistical data processing, modelling,
pedagogical experiment.
The methodological basis of this research is formed by the leading conceptions of
personality development, the theory of the contents of education, modern theories and
conceptions of higher professional education, the Statute on the essence of the pedagogical
process, a pedagogical research on the nature of a teacher`s competence, research on
forming a teacher`s professionalism, research on forming a teacher`s competence, ideas
of systematic, cultural, personal, activity, humanistic, axiological and acmeological
approaches, the idea of subjective activity of a person in its life process, elaboration of
technological approaches and variative technologies of higher education.
3. Results
We can find the following explanations of the categories of competences and
competence in scientific literature (Chown A. (1994), Gifford S. (1994), Berkimbaev,
K.M. and B.T. Kerimbaeva, (2012)). Competences are generalized and formed personality
qualities, its ability to use acquired skills in a most universal way, the totality of knowledge,
skills and abilities, that make it possible for a person to get adapted to changing conditions,
the ability to act and survive in the given conditions. Competence is a special ability of
a person necessary to make a certain step in the sphere of a certain subject, including
narrow special knowledge, skills, ways of thinking and readiness to be responsible for
one`s actions. What is the difference? Competencies are a result of education, readiness
of a person to organize effectively both inner and outer resources to achieve a definite
goal. Competence is an ability to solve problems that appear in one`s surroundings, with
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available means/ A person is competent if he/she is able to solve non-standard, meaningful
problems practically, using knowledge, skills, experience, etc. If we imagine it in the form
of a table, it will look like this:
Table 1: Competencies and competence
Category
The essence of
the category
Indicators of the
category
Marks of the
category
Levels of manifestation of
the category
Competences
Authority.
Sphere of
knowledge.
Diploma, order, statute,
other standards.
Work status.
Program.
Category, class, rank,
level (high, medium, low).
Competence
Ability.
Knowledge, skills, ways
of doing things, etc.
Activity.
Levels of competence
(high, medium, low).
As we can see from Table 1, there are meaningful connections between the
categories of competence and competencies in essence, indicators, marks and levels of
manifestation. Considering all this, we can say that professional competence of students as
future teachers is the leading characteristic of their professionalism and it is a multi-level,
integrative personality formation, based on positive motives of choosing a profession,
the totality of systematic knowledge, reflexive activity, the culture of dialogue, that is
manifested in the readiness of a teacher to solve educational tasks effectively.
Professional competence of students is defined by characteristics of his/her
personal qualities including professional competences. It makes for effective and
adequate professional activity in different spheres of education, being a capable organizer,
having skills of pedagogical analysis and forecasting results of pedagogical activities
and knowledge of its most effective ways. Students` professional competence manifests
itself through solving professional tasks that form the basis of their professional activity
(Berkimbaev, K.M. and B.T. Kerimbaeva, (2012). Besides, we should remember that
professional competence is an ability to perform the main kinds of professional activity and
solve educational tasks in the conditions of an educational establishment. Consequently,
a list of professional competences may include the following groups: general professional
competences, special competences, specialized competences.
The contents of professional competences in the context of scientific approaches
to the concept of competencies is formed under the influence of the following inner and
outer factors:
– The social demand of the territorial market of educational services;
– The demands of the state educational standard to the qualification of a specialist,
foe which legal documents of administrative regulation are the basis;
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– The demands of the employers to the professional qualification as far as the
graduate`s capabilities are concerned;
– Constitutive parts of a technology (technological, methodological, organizational);
– Activities of the professor and the student.
Each group of competences should be classified according to the levels of its being
formed, which depends on the planned educational result, the type of activities in the
framework of the academic subject (intuitive, stereotypical and reproduction activity,
searching and creative one), the training that the students have had and their personal
characteristics. Each level is based on cognitive concepts: reproduction, understanding,
application, analysis, synthesis, assessment (Tracey Arnold Murray, Pamela Higgins,
Vicky Minderhout and Jennifer Loertscher, (2011), Wesley D.C.(1998). The basic level
of formation of professional competences is the minimal indicator and the basis for
further enhancement and enrichment of a professional competence. We shall consider
the productive level its next step, which a student achieves in the process of development
of his/her professional competences. It is the medium indicator. The creative level of
professional competences is the high indicator. The levels of formation of professional
competences are determined by criteria of human activity. So, the criterion of the basic
level is reproductive activity according to a given algorithm, based on understanding
and reproduction of professional actions. Let us consider partial searching activity as
the criterion of the productive level that implies using professional actions to analyze a
professional task. The criterion of the creative level is the work of searching, accompanied
by assessment of the situation or the professional task and synthesis of possible variants
of professional actions.
Reproduction activity has the following characteristics. Students use detailed
instructions in which the goal of the work is defined and explanations (theory and main
characteristics), means and methods of achieving the goal and the plan of achieving it are
given. Partially searching activity has the following characteristics. Students do not use
detailed instructions, they are not given a plan of their actions, and students choose means
and methods themselves, using reference literature. Searching activity has the following
characteristics. Students have to solve a new problem based on the theoretical knowledge
they have.
Thus, getting a result on the basic, productive or creative level should be supported
by understanding and acceptance by the subjects of the educational process of its goals and
demands to its intermediate and final results. Students` professional competence is their
complex professional and personal characteristic as future teachers that is being formed
in the process of professional training, and the students` readiness to solve professional
tasks including the block of contents (knowledge of professional activity), the block of
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motivation (presence of interest and need of professional activity) and the block of activity
(professional skills for qualified professional activity).
The methodological basics of forming students` professional competence are:
– Mastering theoretical and methodological knowledge and practical skills necessary
for pedagogical activity, in the process of theoretical and practical training.
– Supporting maximal use of theoretical, methodological and practical directions of
professional training according to the logic of training on all main forms of professional
activity, innovational pedagogical technologies in the academic subjects and in the process
of practical professional training, in the process of complex pedagogical practice in the
course of forming professional competence;
– Meaningful connection of active innovation technologies of teaching in the
process of forming professional competence of students;
– Forming axiological attention to mastering the methodology of the future
profession.
The criteria and indicators of professional competence of the students are the
following:
– Cognitive (the acquired knowledge, the level of professional mastery, mastering
a complex of concepts, categories and laws), motivational (qualities and features of a
personality, tolerance and pedagogical readiness);
– Practical (mastering actions of professional character, being able to organize
one`s work effectively, using knowledge in non-standard situations, skills of planning,
organizing and performing pedagogical work).
The levels of professional competencies of students are the following:
– The intuitive level (absence of special theoretical knowledge about the special
characteristics of pedagogical activity, about ways of solving pedagogical tasks, not
being able to act in non-standard pedagogical situations, thinking according to a pattern,
absence of understanding of the role of a teacher`s professional competence in his/her
successful work and professional development;
– The stereotype and reproduction level, showing knowledge that enables too define
the direction of pedagogical activity, to have one`s own behavior strategy in different
pedagogical situations, and effective solving of pedagogical tasks;
– The search and creative level, showing strong knowledge, a wish to solve
pedagogical tasks and enter spontaneously appearing or offered pedagogical situations,
mindful attention to the process of forming professional competence of a teacher as a
meaningful characteristic of his/her professionalism. Thus, projecting a model of forming
professional competence of students as former teachers, we should establish the following
blocks:
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I. The organizational and methodological block: thinking of goals and ways
of defining the professional actions, that demand using professional competences,
construction of tasks, elaboration of criteria of assessment of the tasks that are done,
preparing means of teaching, organizing of methodological groups of students and
distributing tasks.
II. The motivational block: giving tasks.
III. The block of activity and methodology: Students` projecting of solving a
pedagogical task, presenting results, methodological assessment, expertise of solutions.
IV. Criteria and indicators of students` professional competences.
V. Levels of students` professional competences.
VI. Methodological basics of forming of professional students` professional
competence:
– Mastering theoretical and methodological knowledge necessary for professional
activity, in the process of academic studies and practical training;
– Making for the maximal usage of possibilities of theoretical, methodological and
practical directions of professional training according to the logic of teaching students
in the main forms of professional activity, innovational pedagogic technologies in the
academic disciplines, in the process of practical training, in the process of the complex
pedagogical practice in forming the students` professional competence;
– Meaningful connection of active innovation technologies in the process of forming
the students` professional competences;
– Forming an axiological attention of the students to methodological mastering of
their future profession.
VII. The technological and dynamic blocks: the basic technology of forming
professional competence of a student in the educational process of a higher educational
establishment consist of:
– Educational technologies aimed at development of creative qualities of a
personality: integrative technologies; technology of forming the subjective social activity
of a student;
– Pedagogical technologies based on a humanistic personally oriented pedagogical
process.
– Technologies based on activation and intensification of students` activities
(active methods of teaching); problem-based teaching (the method of partial search,
the technology of learning research, research games); technologies of project making,
interactive technologies(technology of organizing discussions and disputes);
– Play technologies: pedagogic games, role playing and business games;
– Technologies of individualized teaching: project method;
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– Technology of educational integration: integrative forms of teaching (a practical
seminar, a workshop lecture, a lecture with elements of a dialogue);
2. The dynamic block: the dynamic of forming the professional competence of a
student on the basis of realization of the established methodological basics reflects the
passing from the intuitive, stereotype and reproductive levels to the research and creative
levels of a student`s professional competence. It needs systematic monitoring, that includes
the defined levels and the developed criteria.
4. Discussion.
The organization of the process of forming professional competence of students
needs developing of a methodological model of forming of students` professional
competences, that can reflect the necessary personal and professional qualities of a
student. The methodological model of forming students` professional competences, is a
whole and integrated process, all blocks and other components of which are aimed at the
ultimate goal, forming students` professional competences (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Methodological model of forming
of professional competences of students as future teachers.
Note to Figure 1 Methodological model of forming of professional competences of students as
future teachers:
I. The organizational and methodological block.
II. The motivational block.
III. The block of activity and methodology.
IV. Criteria and indicators of students` professional competences.
V. Levels of students` professional competences.
VI. Methodological basics of forming of professional students` professional competence.
VII. The technological and dynamic blocks.
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The pedagogical experiment consisted in realization of the developed
methodological basics of forming students` professional competence established in the
Methodological model of forming of professional competences of students in the process
of their professional training, and checking its effectiveness. Dynamic of development of
professional competence of students of the control and experimental groups in the whole
period of their studies. The research took place at pedagogical departments of a higher
educational establishment. 75 students took part in it.
The technology of diagnostic of the results of defining the level of students`
professional competence using the point system helped to see a broad tendency of increase
of the level of students` professional competence, which can be seen from the results
of the research in the experimental and control groups before and after the experiment.
(Figure 2: Diagnostic of levels of students` professional competence.)
Figure 2: Diagnostic of levels of students` professional competence.
As we can see from Figure 2, the number of students with a high level of professional
competence in experimental groups increased by 39', the number of students who had
reached the medium level increased by 1', and the number of students who had had a
low level before, decreased by 40'. The results in the control group show that the number
of students with a high level of professional competence increased by 2', the number of
students, who had reached the medium level increased by 1', and the number of students
who had had a low level before, decreased by 3'. The data show thigh effectiveness of
the suggested Methodological model of forming of professional competences of students
as future teachers.
EG (Experimental
group) before
the experiment
EG (Experimental
group) after
the experiment
CG (Control
group) before
the experiment
CG (Control
group) after
the experiment
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Thus, the research has shown that realization of the defined methodological basics
and application of the developed Methodological model of forming of professional
competences of students has influenced the changing of the level of professional
competence of students in the experimental group.
5. Conclusions and recommendations
Forming of professional competence of a student in the educational process of a
higher educational establishment on the base of the presented methodological model
implies the following steps: the first step – adaptive and reproductive, the second
step – active/ the third step – creative and changing. The methodological model has
been developed according to the following approaches: the personality approach, the
activity approach, the systematic approach, the axiological, acmeological and cultural
approaches), and principles that are necessary for successful forming of professional
competence of a student. They are the principle of humanization and democratization of
the educational process, the principle of social and axiological orientation of a teacher`s
activity, the principle of interconnection of sociocultural and educational values, the
principle of correlation of public and personal values, the principle of continuity of
professional training in the modern cultural space, the principle of variability, that
implies creating conditions for individually oriented education; the principle of relying
on the leading achievements of science and technique and the principle of integration of
traditional and innovative values. Having examined the process of forming of students`
professional competence in the educational process of a higher educational establishment,
we have come to the conclusion that traditional forms and methods of forming students`
professional competence are not effective enough. It is due to the frontal character of
professional pedagogical training, low level of introduction of fundamental achievements
of educational theory into the teaching process, the scientific base if competence forming,
that is not well developed, absence of a single opinion on the essence and structure of a
teacher`s professional competence, haphazard character of forming the competence of
future teachers and absence of coordination of efforts of those who teach all academic
disciplines (especially those dealing with the theory of education). All this influences
the analyzed phenomenon. Our research on forming students` professional competence
consisted of three steps: the ascertaining step, the formative step and the control step. The
ascertaining step was made at the beginning of our research, and it included such methods
of pedagogical research as observation, questionnaire survey, talks, studying and analysis
of products of students` activity. It showed a low level of professional competence of
students of a pedagogical college and their low motivation to develop in the sphere of
psychology and education. The methods of research that we used included observation,
questionnaire survey, talks and analysis of professional motivation enabled us to see and
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define several meaningful weak points that prevent effective forming of professional
competence of a student in the educational process of a higher educational establishment.
These weak points and difficulties can be subdivided into the following groups: basic
difficulties (self-doubt, lack of initiative , categorical judgments, rejection of another point
of view and mainly outer motivation for professional activity), meaningful difficulties
(superfluous ideas of the essence of a teacher`s professional competence, low level of
general and communicative culture), operational difficulties (low level of communicative
skills, absence of skills of working with textbooks and scientific literature, difficulties with
homework), reflexive difficulties (lack of objective self-esteem or reflexing about one`s
own activities). The defined interconnection of forms and methods in preparing future
teachers according to established standards of an academic discipline with simultaneous
forming of separate parts of professional competence can be recommended as means of
increasing the effectiveness of the teaching process at a higher educational establishment.
Validated criteria, indicators and levels of professional competence forming of students
at a teachers` training college can make for innovative development of higher education.
In the course of our research some methodological conditions of forming professional
competences of students in the process of their professional training, have been validated.
A structure has been elaborated, its contents, criteria and levels of professional competence
have been defined.
In the process of our research the effectiveness of the developed Methodological
model of forming of professional competences of students and the implied by it
methodological basics of professional training, aimed at forming professional competence
of students as future teachers. The developed model of forming students` professional
competence is recommended for practical use in teachers` training colleges.
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ETHNIC TRADITIONS AS MEANS OF FORMATION
OF MORAL VALUES
A.A. Petrusevich
OMGPU, Omsk
Janat Sakenov
Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute,
Kazakhstan, 140000, Pavlodar, Mira Street, 60
Elizaveta Shnaider, Fatima Zhantemirova
School-gymnasium No. 2 of Gafu Kairbekov, Astana
Anna Zhantemirova
Pavlodar State University named after S. Toraigyrov,
Kazakhstan, 140008, Pavlodar city, Lomov Street, 64
Abstract
Ethnic traditions as a sociocultural phenomenon allowing to comprehend the national
identity of peoples and universal norms in each culture which make a methodological basis for
formation of moral beliefs of a personality are studied in the work. The model of formation of
moral beliefs of seniors which has a systematic character is developed and carried out through
the interconnected stages consistently replacing one another on each of which purposes, contents,
methods and forms of its organization are defined. The world outlook structure of formation of
moral beliefs of seniors which is revealed through the interconnected components: intellectual
(the content of moral belief), emotional (development of feelings, estimated judgments), activity
(familiarization with cultural values of peoples, education of the norms of the correct behavior in
a society, development of steady outlook according to the acquired knowledge is studied.
Keywords: Ethnic traditions, moral beliefs of seniors.
1. Introduction
Formation of moral beliefs is a difficult process. Moral principles and norms serve
as a regulator of relationships and behavior of people and together with esthetic views
define the relation to the surroundings, forms of activity, its purposes and results. In turn
ethnic traditions are also the mechanism which influences a personality morally and is
capable to create the correct belief because this is the social experience saved up by the
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mankind in the course of all progressive activity [7]. In difficult world outlook structure
of consciousness of a personality the process of formation of resistant moral beliefs is
more successful at the senior school age [9]. At youthful age the main lines of outlook are
formed and the first independent adult self-determination is carried out. Acquiring the
system of knowledge and familiarization with cultural values are the main characteristics
of the activity of seniors thanks to which, as J. Erkelens approves, the youth will receive the
skills necessary to think and act respectively [2, Page 1102]. In the conditions of the moral
crisis of the society it is very important to correctly organize the daily activity of students
which would be the peculiar bringing-up soil connecting the ideas of consciousness
with concrete acts [by 8, Page 29]. Accumulation of moral knowledge makes a basis for
development of beliefs and formation of steady motives for moral behavior. As beliefs are
based on reasonable understanding of the moral need to personally follow certain norms
of morals and rely on confidence of correctness and justice of moral principles by which a
person is guided it is expedient to refer successful formation of beliefs to the senior school
age. At the same time practical experience proves that systematized knowledge based on
ethnic traditions promotes formation of moral beliefs among students.
In Kazakhstan there is a certain tendency in the works of N. Sarsenbayev, S.
Zhamansariyeva, K.N. Sarybekov to studying of national traditions and their use in
preparation of seniors for family life, national customs and traditions and their influence
on education of children and youth in the researches of A.H Mukhambayev, S.I. Abishev,
N.N. Podobed and others [5, Page 8].
In researches of A.K. Imanov, N.V. Ivleeva, A.S. Kurmanbekova, G.Z. Musabekova,
G.B. Ospanova, R.K. Atamanov, A.A. Kalyuzhnov, K.A. Ismailova, O.V. Zavalishina the
problems of moral education of school and college students are studied [4, P 4].
Emphasizing the value of the above-named researches it is necessary to note at the
same time that on the basis of ethnic traditions taking into account the present realities
of development of the society, continuity of traditional and progressive education [1, P 3],
future prospects of development of schools [3, P 375] it is necessary to consider formation
of moral beliefs of seniors as a separate research. Ethnic traditions consist of the whole
complex of the achievements of peoples in the field of material and spiritual culture [6].
We pay our attention to those ethnic traditions which have universal contents and promote
identifications of an identity with representatives of a certain nation.
The research objective consists in theoretical justification and practical development
of the system of formation of moral beliefs of seniors on the basis of ethnic traditions.
2. Methods of research
– analysis of psychological and pedagogical, scientific, scientific and engineering
and methodological literature on the topic of the research;
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– analysis of regulations including governmental educational standards of higher
professional education;
– modeling;
– pedagogical experiment;
– questionnaires;
– tests;
– analysis of students’ products;
– processing and interpretation of experimental data.
3. Results
For the solution of the objectives and verification of the initial assumptions the
following methods of research were used: theoretical – analysis and studying of the
problem in scientific literature, empirical – observation, conversations, questioning,
discussions, interviewing, analysis of the best pedagogical practices, analysis of creative
works of students, studying of school documentation.
During the research the model of formation of moral beliefs of seniors (pic. 1) was
developed.
In the developed model the main components directed on formation of moral
beliefs of the identity of seniors are presented. Each component promotes realization of
the set objective and provides a result. For example the principle of determinism shows
causal conditionality of national-psychological features by social factors influencing
the process of formation. That is why in order to comprehend a concrete ethnocultural
phenomenon correctly it is necessary to understand specific reasons and conditions which
generated it. The methodological principle of unity of consciousness and activity gives
a correct understanding of the essence of manifestation of ethnic traditions depending
on regularities of a certain kind of activity in which a school student is involved. When
studying any national feature the principle of personal approach demands considering that
their bearer is always a concrete person and a representative of a certain ethnic community
with characteristic feelings, thoughts, experiences, etc. Besides it is necessary to take into
consideration the principle of considering of ethnic factors. The latter comes from the
material life of people. When studying them it is important to be guided by demographic
and statistical regularities to which they submit in their development thereby influencing
the psychology of a person.
Thus the theoretical analysis of scientific works, studying of educational resources
at the senior stage of school, the proved and developed model allowed to define the
following pedagogical conditions of formation of moral beliefs of seniors: theoretical-
methodological, psychology-pedagogical and organizational -pedagogical. These
conditions assume accumulation of the necessary sum of knowledge, organization of a
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Objective: formation of moral beliefs of seniors on the basis of ethnic traditions
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES
PRINCIPLES: continuity, determinism, personal approach,
considering of ethnic factors, unity of consciousness and activity, tolerance
COMPONENTS
Intellectual
Emotional
Active
CRITERIA
Cognitive
Operational
Motivational
INDICATORS
Seniors' manifestation of
the interest to intercultural
cooperation.
Understanding of the place and
the role of moral beliefs in the
hierarchy of ethnic traditions.
Theoretical preparation for
studying of new moral beliefs.
Refl ection of the following
principles and the results of an
ethnocultural openness.
Aspiration to studying
of ethnic traditions and
understanding of the
national identity. Aspiration
to studying of the universal
values. Instilling of respect
for ethnic trdaitions.
Manifestation of emotional
activity of a senior in the
pedagogical process/
Formation of abilities to
embody the knowledge of
moral beliefs in different
types of activity. Ability to
analyze posotive attitudes to
ethnic traditions. Ability to
fi nd universal relationships
in an ethnocultural
environment, maintaining a
constructive dialogue.
RESULT: positive motivation and growth of the level of formation of moral beliefs of seniors
on the basis of ethnic traditions.
Pic. 1 – The model of formation of moral beliefs of seniors on the basis of ethnic traditions
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joint activity of seniors and the coordinating body of the educational process of a school,
the maintenance of educational programs, forms and methods of practical activities.
On the basis of the developed model and the revealed pedagogical conditions in the
course of the research a diagnostics on definition of the initial level of formation of moral
beliefs of seniors was carried out. The analysis of the results of the ascertaining experiment
showed the prevalence of a number of pupils with low and average level of formation of
the required quality what confirmed the organization of the purposeful work.
4. Discussion
The forming experiment included some interconnected stages: educational,
reformative and generalizing and was carried out within the frames of a specially developed
program in out-of-class activity of pupils «Moral imperatives are the basis for ethnic
traditions». At each stage certain tasks were set which in the course of their successful
implementation systematically led to the final result. The active methods included
observation, questioning, testing, the method of expert evaluations, conversations, etc.
The developed program had the purpose to show seniors the universal values in
each culture and at the same time their national identity and uniqueness of each culture. At
the same time school students acquired the necessary knowledge. Such goal-setting took
place at the 1st stage of the practical-experimental work. The following set of knowledge
is necessary for seniors:
– An objective basis of the life of any nation is the need for interaction and
communication between people. There is a trend: the higher the intra-national and intra-
group integration the more noticeable achievements in the economy and culture and the
more intense communicative connections are;
– one of the main signs of the existence of a nation is its historical memory
representing traditions, customs, legends of forefathers, the feeling of national unity i.e.
familiarization with the spiritual mission of its kin, people, nation, Homeland. A person
possessing historical memory understands the place in the spiritual relay of generations;
– the possibility of long existence of a nation is conditioned by functioning and
continuous improvement of its internal contents which find expression in national
consciousness and self-awareness, national values, interests, predilections and self-
evaluations, national culture and language accumulated in ethnic traditions. Manifestation
of all these components constitutes the life of a nation.
Formation of moral beliefs of seniors demands a skillful management of this
process from teachers. Therefore with a view of their methodical preparation a series
of training lessons within the subject area «Ethnocultural space of a personality» were
developed and carried out. The main objective is to show the variety of social relations of
the representatives of different nationalities.
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At the second – reformative stage of the forming experiment the emphasis was made
on the program recommended for seniors. These were not only lectures with conversation
elements but also debates, panel discussions, presentations which developed the qualities
of a personality and promoted formation of moral beliefs of seniors. As a result the
students gained the knowledge within the following subject areas «The principle «Zhety
Ata» is the basis of a healthy and prospering nation», «The day of morality», «The cult of a
mother is the property of all mankind», «The cult of a father in different peoples», «Yurta
is the ancient symbol of Kazakhstan land», «Under the common sky», etc. Different types
of exercises on development of moral beliefs contained a powerful educational potential.
«How to introduce oneself» (school students should present themselves to an audience,
tell something about themselves, arouse some interest. In order to do this it is necessary to
think about what to say about oneself), «I am going to repeat everybody's names»; «How
to please one's neighbors», «I learn to guess the signs of emotions of my friends», «The
unique and universal in each culture», «The week of morality», «Dostar» and others.
The structure of the exercises on activization of moral categories «moral – immoral»:
«It is moral when..., it is immoral when...» is constructed on the basis of the method of
reflections and interiorization of concepts and the group analysis, it gives a chance to
endure and comprehend the social value of the moral category, its occurrence not only
in relation to them personally but also in their moral or immoral actions in relation to
others. The second object of the exercise is to turn this category into an estimative label
i.e. into a habitual estimative word characterizing personal and somebody else's behavior.
An essential component of this type of exercise is ascertaining of the result on the basis
of an unfinished sentence «It is moral when I..., It is immoral when I...». An important
feature of the exercise is that a teacher begins the sensual-logic analysis of the chosen
moral category with a negative component of the categorial pair.
During the experiment training exercises on formation of tolerance were tested.
Each person expects from other people manifestations of attention, care, patience, help
etc. This was promoted by the exercises: «I like when people treat me...» «Let's enjoy
making gifts», etc. Series of tasks made it possible to create a steady system of moral life
guidelines practically among all students even in cases when they had opposite positions.
The educational potential of these exercises is rather high. Observations in this aspect
showed development of the feeling of trust and politeness among seniors, their informative
interests became more profound, their horizons broadened and communicative abilities
improved.
At the third – generalizing stage of the forming experiment the required qualities of
seniors were improved within implementation of a cycle of homerooms under the general
name «Kazakhstan is our common home». At this stage of the practical-experimental
work a general monitoring of the levels of formation of moral beliefs of seniors was
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carried out. The final check showed rather good results. The students not only gained
the knowledge of ethnic traditions of different peoples but were also convinced of their
humanistic contents, uniqueness and originality. The dynamics of the increase of the
levels of formation of moral beliefs of school students is presented in the table (2,3).
Table 1 – Levels of formation of moral beliefs of seniors on the basis of ethnic traditions at the s
tage of
the ascertaining experiment
Levels
classes
higher
above average
average
below average
low
control
1,2'
4,8'
12'
31'
51'
experimental
1,1'
5,2'
10,7'
29'
54'
Table 2 – Levels of formation of moral beliefs of seniors on the basis of ethnic traditions at the s
tage of
the forming experiment
Levels
classes
higher
above average
average
below average
low
control
2,9'
9,8'
37,3'
26'
24'
experimental
4,8'
21,2'
49'
17'
9'
Conclusions and recommendations. The carried-out research in the direction of
formation of moral beliefs of seniors on the basis of ethnic traditions allows to draw the
following conclusions:
1. Scientific-theoretical justification of the concept of «morality» as a special
category and definition of ethnic traditions allowed to reveal the deep essence of the
definition which is topical at all times but it gets a special value in the period of the renewal
of the society and represents a new creative relation of a person to the surrounding reality
in the context of judgment of national identification of peoples and universal imperatives.
2. Formation of moral beliefs is a rather difficult process. Carrying out the regulatory
function, as an important structural unit of an outlook, beliefs define the spiritual system
of a personality, its orientation and values that is why the discovery of the essence of the
concept «belief» represents a special relation of a person to the surrounding reality.
3. In the difficult world outlook structure of the consciousness of a personality the
process of formation of strong moral beliefs is more successful at the senior school age.
Recognizing that moral beliefs are an internal component of a personality and a motive
for a certain way of behavior they have a special moral force which directs them on
positive transformation of the world and people from the position of ethnic traditions.
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4. The concepts and approaches existing in the pedagogical science in the direction
of formation of moral beliefs formed the theoretical base in the development of structural-
informative model of formation of moral beliefs of seniors on the basis of ethnic traditions
the methodological component of which included system-structural, personal focused
and ethnoculturological approaches. The presented model provides an inclusion of all
participants of the interaction in the pedagogical process and concretizes the notions of
morality of senior school students on the basis of ethnic traditions.
5. The offered program of formation of moral beliefs of seniors on the basis of
ethnic traditions represents a logically complete system. A school is aimed at preparation
of responsible citizens capable to independently estimate the situations occurring in the
society and to build their activity according to the interests of the people surrounding
them what is undoubtedly coordinated with ethnic traditions.
6. In the conditions of ethnocultural education acquiring the system of knowledge
and familiarizing with cultural values are the main characteristics of the activity of
seniors. A powerful educational potential of ethnic traditions as universal value principles
becomes significant owing to the age and specific features which are the basis for the
developed program and the offered technique of work.
7. A purposeful work on formation of moral beliefs of seniors demands systematic
activity. The program assumes the use of an active technique and traditional interactive
forms of work. The most effective ones are discussions, debates, preparation of
presentations, conversations, observations which expand the communicative sphere of
the interaction of seniors concentrated on tolerance, trust and constructive dialogue as
they influence formation of moral beliefs of school students. Moral principles and norms
serve as a regulator of relationships and behavior of people and together with esthetic
views define the relation to the surroundings, forms of activity, its purposes and results.
Possessing high educational potential ethnic traditions are those mechanisms which
influence a personality morally and are capable to create the correct belief because this is
the social experience saved up by the mankind in the course of all progressive activity.
5. Conclusion
The conclusions set forth above allowed to make the following recommendations:
– the process of formation of moral beliefs of seniors on the basis of ethnic traditions
is expedient for carrying out systematically, purposefully and step by step
– the offered model and the program of formation of moral beliefs of seniors have
a universal character, it is necessary to apply them in the pedagogical process creating
for pupils certain conditions which dictate the need for manifestation of morality in any
activity.
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On the whole the results of the research can be potentially applied in drawing
up of program methodical documents for teachers of schools, courses and seminars of
professional development of pedagogical workers, and also during the further research
of the problem of formation of moral beliefs of seniors on the basis of ethnic traditions.
We express gratitude to the teachers and seniors of the schools of Pavlodar oblast for
the help in implementation of the research.
The research was carried out with the grant support of Pavlodar state pedagogical
institute.
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FORMATION OF LEGAL COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS
A.M. Zakal
Universität Hamburg
20148, Hamburg, Mittelweg, 177, Germany
Janat Sakenov
Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute,
Kazakhstan, 140000, Pavlodar, Mira Street, 60
Abstract
The problem of the development of a model of the formation of the legal competence of the
students is studied in this paper. The essence of the concept «The legal competence of the students»

is studied herein to justify the methodology for the development of the model of the formation of
the legal competence of the students. The content-related components of the legal competence
of students were justified in the course of the development of the model of the formation of the
legal competence of the students. The role of the legal and historical subjects in the process of
the formation of the legal competence of the students was described. The model of the formation
of the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects, including

the criteria, the indicators, and the levels of the formation of the legal competence of students
was developed. The model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the study
of the legal and historical disciplines is recommended for use in the development of university
educational programs.
Keywords: model, legal competences of the students, formation, study.
1. Introduction
Currently, no formation of the competitive personality of a professional, adequately
oriented in the social medium, is possible without acquisition by it of the legal knowledge
complex. Modern social medium is increasingly aware of its dependence on the quality of
the legal education, as the level and the system of legal knowledge significantly affect the
efficiency of activity of the person in social medium. The revaluation of the importance
of the law in the social medium takes place in the modern social medium. It is evidenced
by the increase in the prestige of the legal professions, the increase in the amount of
the legal literature, the significant growth of the interest in the legal information. The
scientific literature is dominated by an approach to the law as the most important social
phenomenon (Zippelius, 2012; Kosyanova, 2008; Kaminskaya, & Ratinov, 1974; Burger,
1973; Berkimbaev et al., 2012; Chown, 1994; Nielsen, 1994; Pillai, 2016; Ponomarchuk,
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2011; Svistunov, 2008). However, the presence of the massive manifestations of the legal
nihilism as well as the frequent appearance of the sentiments expressing the socially-
legal insecurity in the social medium should be noted. In modern conditions, there is an
acute need for legal changes conducive to overcoming the negative manifestations. The
success of the country's transformations is largely determined by the level of the legal
competence and legal culture of the society, which, in turn, are formed in the process of
legal education. Not only the state of the social legal culture as a whole, but the result of
legal activities in which this culture is reflected depend on the quality of legal education
in the country. The legal culture of the personality of the student is determined by the
legal knowledge, the respect for the law and the conscious compliance with the legal
standards, the understanding of the legal liability, and the intransigence to the violations.
Traditionally, the educational institutions, including the universities, give the priority to
the special subjects. This situation is quite understandable, since the education is based
on the profile of the institution. However, it should be noted that the underestimation of
the importance of the legal subjects in the professional training of a student can lead to
negative consequences (Kosyanova, 2008; Nielsen, 1994; Kaminskaya, & Ratinov, 1974;
Burger, 1973; Berkimbaev et al., 2012). The low level of the legal competence, formed,
in particular, in the study of law in higher educational institutions, can put the graduate
in the terms of vulnerability, difficult adaptation to future professional activity. So, a
graduate awarded with the qualification «a teacher of history» often fails to solve the
legal issues within the scope of his/her professional activities. At the same time, among
the mandatory requirements for the teaching employees there are not only the subject
knowledge, methodology, pedagogy, but the foundations of the law, legal acts in the
sphere of education (Schantz, 2012; Burger, 1973; Berkimbaev et al., 2012; Nielsen, 1994;
Soboleva, 2013; Sakenov et al., 2012). The quality of legal training of the professional of
any profile, including humanitarian, is of great importance because currently the process
of the formation of the new type personality – the personality of «the law conscious
citizen» which is characterized by a high level of legal competence and legal culture –
is being performed in the society. A huge role in the development of such a personality
belongs to the educational institutions. The modern stage of higher professional education
development is characterized by the process of modernization, the essence of which
lies in the transfer of the students from a reproductive level of learning to the level of
the formation of the competencies. The leading idea of the education is the competence
approach. Currently, there is a need for a qualitatively different professional training,
combining the solidity of the professional basic knowledge with the innovative thinking
and practice-oriented approach to solving the specific problems in the field of professional
activity. In modern conditions, the level of education is not determined by the amount of
knowledge. The days of generalists with broad but constant knowledge have passed. In
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the information technology age, the professionals able to quickly find and analyze the
fast-changing information are particularly appreciated. In this regard, one of the main
objectives of the education should be not the provision of a large amount of factual material
to be remembered, but the teaching of the effective methods of collection and analysis of
the available information. One of the most important tasks of the teacher becomes not a
transfer of ready knowledge, but the correct organization of the activity of the students.
This is especially true with the position of the competence approach, which does not
deny the value of knowledge, but focuses on the ability to use them in practice, on the
ability to solve problems of various complexities on the basis of the existing knowledge.
In the course of study of the legal subjects, the necessity of application of the competence
approach is felt most acutely, because the law is one of the most dynamic regulators of
public relations. In connection with the change of some normative legal acts, the previously
acquired information not only loses its relevance, but may be fundamentally wrong. Given
the rapid growth of the volume of the legal information and its instability, the problem
of legal education should not be confined to the study of the current legislation. In this
regard, the competence-based approach, focused on the acquisition by the student of the
competencies in various fields, is of particular relevance. The concept and essence of
the competence, the possibility of the use of the competence approach in the field of
education has been studied by different researchers (Kathleen et al., 2013; Sundburg,
2001; Albekova et al., 2014; Berkimbaev et al., 2012; Kosyanova, 2008; White, 1959;
Onalbek et al., 2013; Murzalinova, & Koleva, 2012; Kenenbaeva, & Tleulesova, 2013;
Hutchinson, 1994; Gifford, 1994; Fernandez et al., 2012). The analysis of these papers
allows to conclude the absence of the definitive scientific interpretation of the concept
«competence». In this regard, there is a pluralism of approaches to the concept of «legal
competence». From our point of view, the legal competence is a set of qualities reflecting
the degree of qualification, the level of legal knowledge, abilities, skills, willingness and
abilities required to solve the legal issues in the sphere of professional activity.
Thus, the analysis of the scientific papers of Ponomarchuk, 2011; Kosyanova, 2008;
Kaminskaya, & Ratinov, 1974; Burger, 1973; Albekova et al., 2014; Berkimbaev et al.,
2012; Chown, 1994; Nielsen, 1994; Pillai, 2016; Ishanov, & Bekmambetova, 2013; Day,
1994 allows to update the basic contradiction between the objective necessity of the
formation of the legal competence of the students and the insufficient degree of elaboration
of the theoretical bases of the formation of the legal competence of the students, to the
undeveloped role of the legal, historical subjects in this process.
The solution of the revealed contradictions constitutes the purpose of this study: the
development of a model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the
study of the legal and historical subjects.
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2. Methods
The methods of study: to achieve the stated purpose, as well as to develop a model
of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and
historical subjects, the theoretical methods of research were used by the authors: the study
and analysis of the philosophical, sociological, legal and historical literature on the research
of the legal competence; the approaches of the scientists to studying the legal, historical
subjects and the legal competence; the analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization,
modeling in the study of the process of the development of the model of the formation
of the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects.
The methodological basis of the study are the contemporary theories and concepts of
higher education; the studies on the formation of the legal competence; the ideas of the
systemic, culturological, personal, activity, humanistic, axiological, acmeological, and
legal approaches to the higher education; the idea of the legal culture.
3. Results
In the modern social and economic conditions of the functioning of the system of
higher education, the requirements to the level of the legal competence of the students as
the future professionals are increased significantly. The professional with higher education
must have certain legal knowledge, and must be able to apply it in professional activities.
Thus, the problem of the formation of the legal competence as one of the priority
competencies of the graduate in the direction of the education is of particular relevance.
However, as practice shows, the majority of graduates of humanitarian higher education
institutions often have significant gaps in the legal knowledge and skills. This leads to the
conclusion that the existing professional training of future humanitarian professionals
(historians, civil servants) in the institutions does not meet the requirements of the
contemporary society, and these professionals have the underdeveloped legal competence
(Kaminskaya, & Ratinov, 1974; Burger, 1973; Albekova et al., 2014; Berkimbaev et al.,
2012; Kosyanova, 2008; Nielsen, 1994; Soboleva, 2013; Svistunov, 2008). In this regard,
the issue of the formation of the legal competence of the students of the humanitarian
institutions should be considered as the priority in the system of professional training of
the future professionals in the sphere of humanities. The legal competence of the students
of the higher education institutions is defined by the authors as the integral property of the
individual, based on the legal values, reflecting the ability and willingness to apply the
legal knowledge and skills in the occupational activities. To describe the process of the
formation of the legal competence of the students of higher education institutions the
authors decided to use the structuring of the model of the formation of the legal competence
of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects. The methodological basis
of the development of the model of the formation of the legal competence of the students
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in the study of the legal and historical subjects became the axiological, system-activity,
competence and personality-oriented approaches. The axiological approach allows to
identify the legal values of the students of higher educational institutions. The systemic
approach makes possible the interaction of all parts of the model of the formation of the
legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects, which in
turn allows to stimulate maximally the development of all components of the legal
competence in their complexity and unity. The principle of the consistency ensures the
integrity of the process, promoting its effectiveness, allowing to consider the whole
process of the formation of the legal competence as a unified system with diverse internal
successive links. The activity approach allows the students to acquire actively the legal
knowledge and skills of the content-related component of the model of the formation of
the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects. The
competence approach allows to characterize the legal competence of the students of the
higher educational institution, to define its structure and content. The personality-oriented
approach ensures the orientation of all components of the model of the formation of the
legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects on the
development of the personality of a student. The model of the formation of the legal
competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects is represented
by the interrelated modules: the objective (describing the goals and objectives of
professional legal training of students), the content-related (revealing the content of the
professional legal training of students), the organizational and activity (considering the
organization of the training process, the pedagogical conditions, the forms and the
methods of legal education of the students of the higher educational institution), the
effective and criterial (determining the results of the operations for the formation of the
legal competence of the students of the higher educational institution (HEI) and the
criteria for the evaluation of the effectiveness of those activities). Each of these modules
of the model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the study of the
legal and historical subjects, with their functions, specific content and methodological
features, are developed to solve a specific part of the overall pedagogical objective — the
formation of the legal competence of the students of the higher educational institution.
The objective module of the developed model of the formation of the legal competence of
the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects is determined by the
modernization of the education and the social order, defining the goals and objectives of
the legal training of the students of the higher educational institution. The main objective
of the legal training of the students is the formation of the legal competence. The tasks are
defined by us on the basis of the structure of the legal competence of students: – the
formation of the system of legal knowledge and the skills, contributing to successful
professional activity; – the formation of the respect for the law, the recognition of its
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values; – the formation of the legal skills and customs of the lawful behavior. The central
link between the purpose and result of the formation of the legal competence of the
students of the higher educational institution is the content of education, as reflected in
the content of the educational material for the legal and historical subjects (Fundamentals
of Law, Kazakh Law, Roman Law, History of Kazakhstan). This circumstance causes the
differentiation of the second strategic component of the model of the formation of the
legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects — the
content-related component. The content-related module of the model of the formation of
the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects
determines the content of the process of the formation of the legal competence of the
students of the higher educational institution, representing the transition from the
objectives to the results by ensuring of the integrity of the educational process. The
content-related module includes the development of the humanitarian and legal values, the
motivation to obtain the legal knowledge and its use in the future professional activity; the
adoption of a system of legal knowledge; the willingness and the ability to implement the
obtained legal knowledge. The third component included in the model of the formation of
the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects is the
organizational and activity component. This module of the model includes the
organizational activity and the methodological support of the professional legal training
of the students of the higher educational institution. The need for this module is dictated
by the fact that the selection of forms and methods of influence, the definition of
pedagogical conditions conducive to the successful formation of the legal competence
allow to simulate the professional activities, to direct the educational process, the activities
of the teacher and the students to the most complete implementation of the defined goals
and objectives of the educational process, aimed in its turn at the formation of the legal
competence. This module is represented in the model by the forms and methods of legal
education of the students in the framework of the training and professional activities
during the internship and academic activities. In the organizational and activity module
of the developed model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the
study of the legal and historical subjects, the forms and methods of the formation of the
legal competence of the students in the above-mentioned types of learning activities (role
play, case study, analysis of incidents, discussion, brainstorming method, etc.) are
presented. Among the pedagogical conditions promoting the effective implementation of
the model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal
and historical subjects, the following are highlighted by the authors: the improvement of
the educational process providing the opportunity for sequential legal knowledge
acquisition, the rule of motivation and formation of the positive legal experience in the
framework of the educational and professional and scientific activities, with the active use
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of the interactive learning methods, as well as within the educational practice; the
improvement of the program-didactic support of the educational process through the
introduction of a special course «Legal Bases of Activity of a Professional» and the
strengthening of the professional aspects of the «Jurisprudence» subject. The fourth is the
effective and criterial component, reflecting the efficiency of the process of the formation
of the legal competence of the students of the higher educational institution, describing
the results achieved in the legal education in accordance with the objectives. This module
includes the criteria, the levels, and the indicators of the components of the legal
competence of the students of a higher educational institution. As the criteria of the
formation of the legal competence of the students of medical Institute, the following were
highlighted by the authors:
1. The degree of the formation of the system of values and motivation for the
lawful behavior. Under this criterion, the authors understand the respect for legal values
shown, the conscious, reasoned participation in educational and socially-active legal
work. The indicators: the recognition of the importance of the legal values in society, the
severity of educational, professional and cognitive motives for the acquisition of the legal
knowledge and its application in future professional activities; the need to improve the
legal competence.
2. The degree of legal awareness. Under this criterion, the authors understand the
awareness in the legal knowledge system. Indicators: knowledge of the fundamentals of
the theory of state and law, the Constitution, the main normative-legal acts, the knowledge
of normative-legal acts regulating the professional activities, the knowledge of rights and
duties, the knowledge of the legal terminology.
3. The degree of the formation of the skills and habits of lawful behavior. Under this
criterion, the authors understand the acquisition of the legal knowledge and the ability
to apply it in practice. The indicators: the ability to find, analyze and apply the legal
information independently; the ability to perform the analysis of the normative legal acts
from the point of view of the implementation and protection of the human rights; the
ability to apply legal knowledge to determine the appropriate law, the way of conduct
and the rules of action in particular situations; the ability to use the legal mechanisms
to protect the rights and legitimate interests; the ability to make legitimate decisions in
specific situations that arise in the exercise of professional activity; the ability to give
legal assessment of the professional offences and to identify possible legal consequences
of such acts, ways of their prevention.
The levels of the formation of the legal competence of the students of the higher
educational institution are presented in terms of the content as follows. The low level is
characterized by the rawness of the value-motivational component of the legal competence,
the superficial legal knowledge, that is, the minimal or inadequate understanding of the
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legal information, legal terminology, and the lack of ability to analyze the legal information.
The students have no positive motivation and commitment to legal education. The average
level is characterized by partial formation of the components of the legal competency
while the students are showing the interest only in the mandatory legal information; the
legal knowledge is superficial, not clear enough, basically approaching the prescribed
textbooks. The legal vocabulary is limited; the students consume the minimum number
of legal terms. This level is characterized by the formation of certain legal skills that are
not always sufficient to resolve situations of a legal nature. The high level is characterized
by the formation of all components of the legal competence. The students show the
multilateral sustained interest in legal information. The amount of legal knowledge is
considerably outside of the program; the knowledge is broad and based on the laws and
other normative-legal acts. This level is characterized by the need to improve the legal
knowledge and skills. A legal vocabulary is quite rich. The students are able to solve
competently the legal problems, to assess the problem situation from the position of the
law.
3.1. Originality results.
The model of the formation of the legal competence of the
students is theoretically grounded, designed and presented in our study (see Figure 1).
I
IV
V
VI
III
II
Figure 1. The model of the formation of the legal competence of the students
The explanation to the Figure 1. The model of the formation of the legal competence
of the students. This model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the
study of the legal and historical subjects presents the core modules of the process of the
formation of the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical
subjects in reference to each other:
1 – the axiological, systemic, activity, competence-based and personality-oriented
approaches to the formation of the legal competence of the students in the study of the
legal and historical subjects.
2 – the objective module of the developed model of the formation of the legal
competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects is determined by
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the modernization of the education and the social order, defining the goals and objectives
of the legal training of the students of the higher educational institution.
3 – the content-related module of the model of the formation of the legal competence
of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects determines the content of the
process of the formation of the legal competence of the students of the higher educational
institution, representing the transition from the objectives to the results by ensuring of the
integrity of the educational process.
4 – the organizational and activity component includes the organizational activity
and the methodological support of the professional legal training of the students
of the higher educational institution. This module is represented in the model by the
forms and methods of legal education of the students in the framework of the training
and professional activities during the internship and academic activities. Among the
pedagogical conditions, the following are highlighted by the authors: the improvement
of the educational process providing the opportunity for sequential legal knowledge
acquisition, the rule of motivation and formation of the positive legal experience in the
framework of the educational and professional and scientific activities, with the active
use of the interactive learning methods, as well as within the educational practice; the
improvement of the program-didactic support of the educational process through the
introduction of a special course «Legal Bases of Activity of a Professional» and the
strengthening of the professional aspects of the «Jurisprudence» subject.
5 – the effective and criterial component reflects the efficiency of the process of the
formation of the legal competence of the students of the higher educational institution,
describes the results achieved in the legal education in accordance with the objectives.
This module includes the criteria, the levels, and the indicators of the components of the
legal competence of the students of higher educational institution.
6 – the process and the result of the formation of the legal competence of the students
in the study of the legal and historical subjects.
The developed model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in
the study of the legal and historical subjects is a descriptive analogue of the process of the
formation of the legal competence of the students of the higher educational institution.
Each of the modules of the model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in
the study of the legal and historical subjects has a specific content and the methodological
features, and solves a particular part of the overall pedagogical objectives – the formation
of the legal competence of students of a higher educational institution.
4. Discussion
The legal competence of a student is the integral property of the personality, based
on the legal values, reflecting the ability and the willingness to apply the legal knowledge
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and skills in the occupational activities. The formed legal competence of a student is the
result of effective implementation of the model of the formation of the legal competence
of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects (Fundamentals of Law,
Kazakh Law, Roman Law, History of Kazakhstan, Legal Basis of Activities of a Specialist,
Jurisprudence), through the improvement of the organization of the HEI educational
process, providing the possibility of sequential assimilation of the legal knowledge, the
formation of the legal motivation and positive legal experience in professional education
and scientific activities, with the active use of the methods of interactive education, as
well as in the course of training and practice; through the improvement of the programme
and the didactic support of the educational process; by the systemic actualization of the
legal experience in the educational process, motivating the willingness and the ability
of the students to transform the legal information on the legal and historical subjects
(Fundamentals of Law, Kazakh Law, Roman Law, History of Kazakhstan, Legal Bases
of Activities of a Specialist, Jurisprudence) in the legal knowledge with the prospect of
legal self-education, self-improvement and self-realization in the modern legal society.
This mechanism is used by the authors in the structure of the Model of the formation of
the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects and is
contextually reflected in the following modules of the Model: the Objective module of the
formation of the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical
subjects; the Content-related module of the formation of the legal competence of the students
in the study of the legal and historical subjects; Organizational and activity module of the
formation of the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical
subjects; the Effective-criterial module of the formation of the legal competence of the
students in the study of the legal and historical subjects. The Model of the formation of the
legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical subjects creates
the conditions for the implementation in the HEI educational process of the criterial and
level mechanism of monitoring of the formation of the legal competence of the students;
it creates the conditions for the organization of the legal activity of the students in the
course of study of the subjects: Fundamentals of Law, Kazakh Law, Roman Law, History
of Kazakhstan, Legal Bases of Activities of a Specialist, Jurisprudence.
5. Conclusion
The scientific novelty of this study lies in the methodological approaches to the
designing of the Model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the study
of the legal and historical subjects, such as axiological, systemic, activity, competence
and personality-oriented approaches. The justification of the methodological approaches
allowed the authors to develop and to justify the structure and the content of the model of
the formation of the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal and historical
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subjects. The Model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the study
of the legal and historical subjects contains the pedagogical conditions promoting the
effective implementation of the process of the formation of the legal competence of the
students, such as the improvement of the educational process providing the opportunity
for sequential acquisition of the legal knowledge, the formation of the legal motivation
and positive legal experience in the framework of the educational, professional and
scientific activities, with the active use of the methods of interactive education, as well as
in the framework of educational legal practice. In the process of the development of the
Model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal
and historical subjects, the concept of the «legal competence» was substantiated as the
integral property of the personality, based on the legal values, reflecting the ability and
the willingness to apply the legal knowledge and skills in the occupational activities. The
developed Model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the study
of the legal and historical subjects provides a perspective of a wide range of the new
studies of the scientific problem of the formation of the legal competence of the students.
In contrast to the studies performed by Zippelius, 2012; Kosyanova, 2008; Kaminskaya,
& Ratinov, 1974; Burger, 1973; Albekova et al., 2014; Berkimbaev et al., 2012; Chown,
1994; Nielsen, 1994; Pillai, 2016; Ponomarchuk, 2011; Soboleva, 2013; Svistunov, 2008,
the structure of the Model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the
study of the legal and historical subjects, developed in this study, contains the modules for
the development of the guidelines and educational programmes, ensuring the efficiency
of the process of the formation of the legal competence of the students. The developed
Model of the formation of the legal competence of the students in the study of the legal
and historical subjects is recommended for use in the educational process in the higher
educational institutions.
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FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS COLLEGE
(ROLE OF ELECTIVE DISCIPLINES)
Kuralay Omarova
Transport and Communications College,
140006, Pavlodar, Dimitrova Street, 2, Kazakhstan.
Janat Sakenov
Pavlodar state pedagogical institute,
140006, Pavlodar, Mira Street, 60, Kazakhstan.
Abstract
The article studied: the process of formation of professional competence. In the article
using of elective disciplines in students professional competence formation process is investigated.

Using of elective disciplines allows to add possibilities of students professional training. The
essence, specifics, opportunities and features of elective disciplines in students professional
competence formation process is defined. Key characteristics of pedagogical specialties students
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professional competence are proved. The technology of elective disciplines formation is under
construction on the basis of the analysis of requirements to the pedagogical specialties students.
Pedagogical conditions of efficiency of elective disciplines using in in pedagogical specialties
students professional training are: compensatory approach, orientation of elective disciplines on
the solution of a specific objective; motivation of pedagogical specialties students on mastering a
course of elective disciplines. Is developed the model of formation of professional competence of
students (in the study of elective courses).
Keywords: professional competence, elective disciplines, formations of professional
competence, model of formation of professional competence of students (in the study of elective
courses).
1. Introduction.
The level of research scientific problem. In the conditions of the carried-out
modernization of higher education the role of the student, his active position considerably
increases in the attitude towards the studied disciplines. Introduction of elective courses
(disciplines at the choice of students) are capable to change cardinally the attitude of
students towards to what and as train them in higher education institution. Unfortunately,
the elective disciplines offered today reflect scientific interests of chairs, teachers in
higher education institution and aren't always focused on needs of pedagogical specialties
students, priorities of their professional adaptation in labor market. According to the
purposes of modern education it is necessary to project modern educational courses on
the basis of competence-based approach which realization becomes possible as a result
of use of adequate technologies of training. In modern conditions of the higher school
development when there is a deep differentiation of education and at the same time
reduction of hours on studying of many fundamental disciplines, elective training is an
important component of the educational system allowing to expand and deepen knowledge
of pedagogical specialties students of various sections of preparation professional
program. We understand the additional professional education which is integrally
connected with basic courses, used as means of informative requirement satisfaction and
interest of pedagogical specialties students in questions of the general and professional
competences development, significant for their further professional activity as elective
education. The purpose of elective disciplines – expansion and increasing knowledge of
pedagogical specialties students according to various sections of an educational program
according to their voluntary choice and informative requirements. Elective disciplines
are the new educational routes of students which are partially removing a contradiction
between reduction of hours on studying of obligatory courses and need of an educational
field expansion according to modern requirements to the level of the expert training. The
disciplines chosen by the student become obligatory for studying. In total the regional
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component of a professional education and elective disciplines provide knowledge, skills
of pedagogical specialties students. In turn, elective disciplines – the list of training
disciplines, the educations approved by the organizations entering a component for choice
from among which students of pedagogical specialties form the individual curriculum
within the established credits. Thus, elective disciplines provide knowledge, skills of
pedagogical specialties students, form their professional competences as future teachers.
Analysis works of Valeeva I.A., Beregova I.P. [1], Kenenbaeva M.A, Tleulesova A.Sh.
[2], Sakenov D.Zh. [3], Kathleen A. Brown-Rice and Susan Furr [4], Asenova N.S., Sake-
nov D.Zh. [5], Zhaparova B.M., Tleulesova A.Sh., Sarsenbayeva B.G., Baygozhina Zh.M.,
Aytpayeva Zh.Zh., Sakenov D.Zh. [6], Yahia Obaidat [7], Nabieva E. [8], Kul'kov S.A.
[9], Schantz E.A. [10], Mane L. Miville, Changming Duan, Roberta L. Nutt, Charles A.
Waehler, Lisa Suzuki, M. Carole Pistole, Patricia Arredondo, Michael Duffy, Brenda X.
Mejia, Melissa Corpus [11], Sarsenbaeva B.G., Nikolaeva N.V., Kulsharipova Z.K., Demi-
denko R.N., Vlasova V.V., Sakenov J.Z. [12], Granovskiy G.I. [13], Nicolas Fernandez,
Valerie Dory, LouisGeorges Ste-Marie, Monique Chaput, Bernard Charlin and Andree
Boucher [14] etc. shows that formation of students professional competence becomes one
of the priority directions of modern elective education.
As they note (Valeeva I.A., Beregova I.P. [1], Kenenbaeva, M.A, Tleuleso-
va A.Sh. [2], Sakenov D. Zh. [3], Kathleen A. Brown-Rice and Susan Furr [4], Asenova
N.S., Sakenov D.Zh. [5], Zhaparova B.M., Tleulesova A.Sh., Sarsenbayeva B.G., Baygo-
zhina Zh.M., Aytpayeva Zh.Zh., Sakenov D.Zh. [6], Yahia Obaidat [7], Nabieva E. [8],
Kul'kov S.A. [9], Schantz E.A. [10], Mane L. Miville, Changming Duan, Roberta L. Nutt,
Charles A. Waehler, Lisa Suzuki, M. Carole Pistole, Patricia Arredondo, Michael Duf-
fy, Brenda X. Mejia, Melissa Corpus [11], Sarsenbaeva B.G., Nikolaeva N.V., Kulsha-
ripova Z.K., Demidenko R.N., Vlasova V.V., Sakenov J. Z. [12], Granovskiy G.I. [13],
Nicolas Fernandez, Valerie Dory, LouisGeorges Ste-Marie, Monique Chaput, Bernard
Charlin and Andree Boucher [14]): elective courses have special value by preparation
of bachelors of the Pedagogical education direction as definition of a concrete type of
professional activity is defined by a higher educational institution together with being
trained, scientific and pedagogical workers of a higher educational institution and
associations of employers. Solution of objectives not possibly only powers of disciplines
of a base unit. Complete and all-round preparation is possible in the conditions of active
introduction of system elective courses. Let´s note that in pedagogical higher education
institutions teaching of disciplines for choice, focused on preparation of future teacher of
rural school isn´t conducted, also in a federal state educational standard the orientation on
formation of professional competence of future teacher of rural school isn´t fully reflected.
For preparation of the teacher in the conditions of rural areas it is offered to include
in the curriculum of preparation of bachelors of the direction «050100 – Pedagogical
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education» the following system of elective courses: « Management of rural schools in
the modernization of the educational system»; «The organization of independent work
of pupils at rural school»; «The organization of preprofile preparation of pupils at rural
school»; «Methodical (work system) work of the teacher of rural school on preparation
of pupils to performance of Unified State Examinations tasks»; «Profile training at rural
school». The basis for introduction of these elective courses are all-didactic principles:
fundamental nature, availability, quality of knowledge. The offered courses correspond
to private principles of formation of the content of disciplines for choice which contents
reflect specifics of preparation of future teachers of rural school. The carried-out analysis
of scientific literature on a problem of elective education as way of pedagogical specialties
students professional competence formation, testify to increase of interest in this problem.
Unfortunately, still basic research of a problem of interrelation of elective disciplines and
pedagogical higher education students professional competence formation institution it
wasn't carried out. Besides, the analysis of scientific researches Valeeva I.A., Berego-
va I.P. [1], Kenenbaeva M.A, Tleulesova A.Sh. [2], Sakenov D. Zh. [3], Kathleen A. Brown-
Rice and Susan Furr [4], Asenova N.S., Sakenov D.Zh. [5], Zhaparova B.M., Tleuleso-
va A.Sh., Sarsenbayeva B.G., Baygozhina Zh.M., Aytpayeva Zh.Zh., Sakenov D. Zh. [6],
Yahia Obaidat [7], Nabieva E. [8], Kul'kov S.A. [9], Schantz E.A. [10], Mane L. Miville,
Changming Duan, Roberta L. Nutt, Charles A. Waehler, Lisa Suzuki, M. Carole Pistole,
Patricia Arredondo, Michael Duffy, Brenda X. Mejia, Melissa Corpus [11], Sarsen-
baeva B.G., Nikolaeva N.V., Kulsharipova Z.K., Demidenko R.N., Vlasova V.V., Sake-
nov J.Z. [12], Granovskiy G.I. [13], Nicolas Fernandez, Valerie Dory, LouisGeorges
Ste-Marie, Monique Chaput, Bernard Charlin and Andree Boucher [14], shows that higher
educational institutions at the moment have no sufficient level of the evidence-based
organization of the educational process promoting use of elective disciplines in process of
pedagogical specialties students professional competence formation.
In this way, in researches of students professional training (Kathleen A. Brown-
Rice and Susan Furr [1], Sakenov D.Zh. [2], Dornan T., Carroll C., Parboosingh J. [3],
Asenova N.S., Sakenov D.Zh. [4], Kristin Litster and Jillian Roberts [5], Sarsenbae-
va B.G., Nikolaeva N.V., Kulsharipova Z.K., Demidenko R.N., Vlasova V.V., Sake-
nov J.Z. [6], Nicolas Fernandez, Valerie Dory, LouisGeorges Ste-Marie, Monique
Chaput, Bernard Charlin and Andree Boucher [7], Zhaparova B.M., Tleulesova A.Sh.,
Sarsenbayeva B.G., Baygozhina Zh.M., Aytpayeva Zh.Zh., Sakenov D.Zh. [8], Claire
Kramsch [9], Kenenbaeva M.A, Tleulesova A.Sh. [10], Valeeva I.A., Beregova I.P. [11],
etc.) conditions, factors and substantial variability of this process are allocated. These
researches give the grounds for ascertaining about possibility of elective disciplines
using in process of pedagogical specialties students professional competence formation.
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However, the status of students’ need for formation of conditions professional competence
of elective disciplines studying remains low-studied.
Thus, need of pedagogical specialties students professional competence formation
is quite obvious now, but process of its formation when studying elective disciplines
demands specification. Professional competence of pedagogical specialties students is the
basic, integrated characteristic of personal qualities of the student including professional
competences, providing effective and expedient implementation of professional activity
in various spheres and segments of education according to the legal and moral standards
accepted in modern society, characterizing existence of organizing abilities, skills of the
analysis and forecasting of pedagogical activity results, knowledge of the most effective
and rational ways of its implementation, and also professional mobility. This understanding
of pedagogical specialties students professional competence creates a scientific basis
for development of the content of elective disciplines as means of vocational training of
students. However, as shows the analysis of psychology and pedagogical and methodical
literature, works Valeeva I.A., Beregova I.P. [1], Kenenbaeva M.A, Tleulesova A.Sh. [2],
Sakenov D.Zh. [3], Kathleen A. Brown-Rice and Susan Furr [4], Asenova N.S., Sake-
nov D.Zh. [5], Zhaparova B.M., Tleulesova A.Sh., Sarsenbayeva B.G., Baygozhina Zh.M.,
Aytpayeva Zh.Zh., Sakenov D.Zh. [6], Yahia Obaidat [7], Nabieva E. [8], Kul'kov S.A.
[9], Schantz E.A. [10], Mane, L. Miville, Changming Duan, Roberta L. Nutt, Charles
A. Waehler, Lisa Suzuki, M. Carole Pistole, Patricia Arredondo, Michael Duffy,
Brenda X. Mejia, Melissa Corpus [11], Sarsenbaeva B.G., Nikolaeva N.V., Kulsharipova
Z.K., Demidenko R.N., Vlasova V.V., Sakenov J.Z. [12], Granovskiy G.I. [13], Nicolas
Fernandez, Valerie Dory, LouisGeorges Ste-Marie, Monique Chaput, Bernard Charlin
and Andree Boucher [14], development of elective disciplines as means of pedagogical
specialties students professional competence formation remains out of a field of modern
scientific researches, their specifics in comparison with the main disciplines thereby
aren't considered. The insufficient modern theoretical readiness of this scientific problem
caused the low level of productivity of elective disciplines using in process of pedagogical
specialties students professional competence formation. Research objective: theoretically
to prove and experimentally to check a role of elective disciplines the process of formation
of professional competence of students pedagogical specialties.
2. Methods.
Theoretical-methodological basis of research are the leading concepts of education;
theory of the content of education; modern theories and concepts of higher education;
regulations on essence of complete pedagogical process; pedagogical researches about
the nature of the teacher’s work; researches on formation of the teacher’s professionalism;
researches on the teacher’s professional competence formation; ideas of system,
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culturological, personal, activity, humanistic, axiological, ackmeological approaches;
idea of subject activity of the personality in the course of her activity; development of
technological approaches and variable technologies of education.
Research methods: – theoretical methods: studying and analysis of special literature
and researches on a problem of education quality and competence-based approach;
classification, comparison, generalization; the retrospective analysis of own experience,
the analysis of standard and methodical documents concerning higher education;
– empirical methods: pedagogical supervision, questioning, studying and synthesis
of experience, conceptual justifications and analysis of student teaching;
– pedagogical experiment: work on the developed materials and methodical
recommendations for teachers of carrying out elective courses.
Methodological basis of research were: the theory about activity essence of the
person and creative activity, the theory of systems, the theory of management; principles
of system, personal, activity, competence-based approaches to formation of the identity
of the expert.
3. Main part.
Author's original methodological approach. Use of elective disciplines in process
of pedagogical specialties students’ professional competence formation is understood
by us, as process of development and specification of pedagogical specialties students
professional competence system, their experience of practical and creative activities for
the purpose of security of integrity and focus of the most elective discipline. In the context
of our research the technology of elective disciplines formation is activities for expansion
and formation of the following criteria and indicators of pedagogical specialties students
professional competence:
– informative (assimilation of knowledge, level of professional literacy, mastering
complex of concepts, categories, laws);
– motivational (qualities and properties of the personality, tolerance, psychological
readiness);
– practical (mastering the actions having a professional focus, existence of abilities
of the rational organization of work, use of knowledge in non-standard situations, skills of
design, the organization and implementation of professional activity.
Pedagogical conditions of elective using efficiency disciplines in of pedagogical
specialty students professional training are: compensatory approach in their formation
(time, small on volume, and dynamism of changes); orientation of elective disciplines on
the solution of the specific objective reflecting requirements of labor market; motivation
of pedagogical specialties students on mastering a course of elective disciplines. In this
regard, we developed and introduced original Model of elective disciplines using in
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process of pedagogical specialties students professional competence formation including
criteria and indicators of process productivity. At design of elective disciplines using
Model in process of pedagogical specialties students professional competence formation
allocation of the following components is necessary: procedural, cognitive, information.
The procedural component is based on a complex of the pedagogical specialties students
practical skills making a basis of professional competence at development of elective
disciplines. The cognitive component of professional competence describes, first of all,
intellectual development and features of cognitive activity of the pedagogical specialties
students making also professional competences at development of elective disciplines.
Information component characterizes tactics and strategy of professional behavior of
pedagogical specialties students as future teachers, making professional competences at
development of elective disciplines.
Thus, the organization of elective disciplines using process in process of pedagogical
specialties students professional competence formation assumes development of the model
containing professional competences and reflecting necessary personal and professional
qualities of pedagogical specialties students as future teachers. The model represents the
complete, interconnected process in which all components and components are directed
on achievement of an ultimate goal – formation at students of pedagogical specialties of
professional competence as result of development of elective disciplines (fig. 1 Model of
formation of professional competence of students (in the study of elective courses).
I
V
III
VI
IV
II
Figure 1. Model of formation of professional competence of students
(in the study of elective courses).
The explanation to figure 1. Model of formation of professional competence of
students (in the study of elective courses):
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I – Process of formation of professional competence of students (in the study of
elective courses);
II – Elective disciplines;
III – Components of elective disciplines: procedural, cognitive, information;
IV – Technology of elective disciplines formation;
V – Pedagogical conditions of using elective disciplines;
VI – Professional competences of students;
Scientific originality and uniqueness of the Model of formation of professional
competence of students (in the study of elective courses). During experimental check
of Model of elective disciplines using in process of pedagogical specialties students
professional competence formation, including analyzing dynamics of the relation of
pedagogical specialties students to the content of elective disciplines, it is possible to draw
the following conclusion: at the initial stage of experiment the number of pedagogical
specialties students with the expressed cognitive interest made 16', and at the end of
the 6th semester it increased to 71'. Therefore, positive dynamics for 55' allows to
determine productivity of skilled and experimental work by this criterion. The analysis of
the experiment forming stage results allows to define dynamics of pedagogical specialties
students professional competence formation. At the initial stage of experiment the number
of pedagogical specialties students with the created professional competences made 16',
and at the end of the 7th semester it increased to 72'. Therefore, positive dynamics
by this criterion for 54' indicates productivity of skilled and experimental work on
pedagogical specialties students professional competence formation when studying
elective disciplines. The comparative analysis of results of the stating and forming stages
of experiment showed that in the course is skilled – experimental work positive dynamics
by all criteria of elective disciplines using Model in process of pedagogical specialties
students professional competence formation is observed.
Pedagogical diagnostics of level determination results of pedagogical specialties
students professional competence formation when studying elective disciplines which is
carried out with use of the rating monitoring system allowed to reveal a tendency of
level increase of pedagogical specialties students professional competence formation
when studying elective disciplines to what results of progress in experimental and control
groups before experiment (fig. 2) testify.
The results and discussions. As a result of the conducted research, we note that
in experimental groups the number of pedagogical specialties students with rather
high level of professional competence formation after experiment increased by 19'.
In turn, the number of the pedagogical specialties students which reached the average
level of professional competence formation after experiment – increased by 1'. The
most important that as a result of the conducted research the number of students of the
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pedagogical specialties having the low level of formation of professional competence after
experiment – decreased by 20'.
Results of the conducted research in control groups of pedagogical specialties
students, testify to preservation of number of pedagogical specialties students with
the high level of professional competence formation at the level of 10–11', change of
pedagogical specialties students number with average level – for 1', reduction of low
level of professional competence formation by 2'.
Fig. 2. Diagnostics of pedagogical specialties students professional competence
formation level when studying elective disciplines.
Thus, the received indicators testify to high efficiency of the offered Model of
formation of professional competence of students (in the study of elective courses). In
high school system of pedagogical specialties students professional competence the
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important place belongs to elective courses of students. In this regard, we claim, unlike
other researchers (Valeeva I.A., Beregova I.P. [1], Kenenbaeva M.A, Tleulesova A.Sh. [2],
Sakenov D. Zh. [3], Kathleen A. Brown-Rice and Susan Furr [4], Asenova N.S., Sake-
nov D.Zh. [5], Zhaparova B.M., Tleulesova A.Sh., Sarsenbayeva B.G., Baygozhina Zh.M.,
Aytpayeva Zh.Zh., Sakenov D.Zh. [6], Yahia Obaidat [7], Nabieva E. [8], Kul'kov S.A.
[9], Schantz E.A. [10], Mane, L. Miville, Changming Duan, Roberta L. Nutt, Charles
A. Waehler, Lisa Suzuki, M. Carole Pistole, Patricia Arredondo, Michael Duffy, Brenda
X. Mejia, Melissa Corpus [11], Sarsenbaeva B.G., Nikolaeva N.V., Kulsharipova Z.K.,
Demidenko R.N., Vlasova V.V., Sakenov J.Z. [12], Granovskiy G.I. [13], Nicolas Fernan-
dez, Valerie Dory, LouisGeorges Ste-Marie, Monique Chaput, Bernard Charlin and
Andree Boucher [14] ) that the existing system of professional education will be able
to provide a combination of requirements of labor market, interests of the student and
opportunities of higher education institution in compliance with achievements of science
and the advanced practice, under a condition, if:
– elective disciplines are formed on the basis of competence-based approach and are
directed on the solution of the private educational tasks providing high-quality training of
pedagogical specialties students.
– the choice of elective disciplines of pedagogical specialties students considers
requirements of labor market, the requirement to quality of professional education and
possibility of the graduate to self-realization;
– the content of elective disciplines provides the solution of a private educational
task (information, applied, personal);
– each elective discipline is provided with adequate technology of training.
4. Discussion
The novelty of the scientific research results. Thus, as a result of the conducted
research the essence, components, specifics, technologies, opportunities, pedagogical
conditions and features of use of elective disciplines in the course of of pedagogical
specialties students professional competence formation is proved. The methodological
analysis of elective disciplines using study condition in process of professional competence
formation allowed to reveal and prove structure, key characteristics and mechanisms
of pedagogical specialties students professional competence formation in the course of
studying of elective disciplines. The original model of elective disciplines using in process
of pedagogical specialties students professional competence formation in the conditions
of teacher training college, including is developed and is experimentally approved:
– components, technology and pedagogical conditions of use of elective disciplines
in process of of pedagogical specialties students professional competence formation.
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In the course of research an inspection is carried experimentally out and efficiency
of elective disciplines using model in process of of pedagogical specialties students
professional competence formation is proved.
5. Conclusions
Unlike the works of Valeeva I.A., Beregova I.P. [1], Kenenbaeva, M.A, Tleuleso-
va A.Sh. [2], Sakenov D.Zh. [3], Kathleen A. Brown-Rice and Susan Furr [4], Aseno-
va N.S., Sakenov D.Zh. [5], Zhaparova B.M., Tleulesova A.Sh., Sarsenbayeva B.G.,
Baygozhina Zh.M., Aytpayeva Zh.Zh., Sakenov D.Zh. [6], Yahia Obaidat [7], Nabieva E.
[8], Kul'kov S.A. [9], Schantz E.A. [10], Mane, L. Miville, Changming Duan, Roberta
L. Nutt, Charles A. Waehler, Lisa Suzuki, M. Carole Pistole, Patricia Arredondo,
Michael Duffy, Brenda X. Mejia, Melissa Corpus [11], Sarsenbaeva B.G., Nikolae-
va N.V., Kulsharipova Z.K., Demidenko R.N., Vlasova V.V., Sakenov J.Z. [12], Granovskiy
G.I. [13], Nicolas Fernandez, Valerie Dory, LouisGeorges Ste-Marie, Monique Chaput,
Bernard Charlin and Andree Boucher [14] broad analytical approach to this problem,
allowed to us develop Model of formation of professional competence of students (in
the study of elective courses). Using of elective disciplines allows adding possibilities of
pedagogical specialties students professional competence. Competence-based approach,
considering requirements of the market, specialty and interests of students of pedagogical
specialties, on the one hand, about other potential of the state and high school component,
will allow adding with elective disciplines educational process. Each elective course
supplements possibility of the solution of information, applied, personal educational task.
The technology of elective disciplines formation is under construction on the basis
of the requirements analysis to the pedagogical specialties students taking into account
requirements of labor market, possibility of the state and high school component, and
also taking into account opinions of students and defines private educational tasks, ways
of their decision through elective disciplines. Such elective disciplines have dynamic
character, are specified and supplemented taking into account changes of a conjuncture
of labor market, emergence of new advanced technologies and interests of pedagogical
specialties students. Pedagogical conditions of elective disciplines using efficiency in
vocational training of students of pedagogical specialties are: compensatory approach in
their formation (time, small on volume, and dynamism of changes); orientation of elective
disciplines on the solution of the specific objective reflecting requirements of labor
market; motivation of pedagogical specialties students on mastering a course of elective
disciplines; realization of elective courses is based with use of the active methods of
training providing the solution of an educational task and maintains interest of pedagogical
specialties students in mastering the content of elective discipline.
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METHODICAL CONDITIONS OF FORMATION PROFESSIONAL
COMPETENCES AT STUDENTS COLLEGE
Kuralay Omarova
Transport and Communications College,
140006, Pavlodar, Dimitrova Street, 2, Kazakhstan
Janat Sakenov
Pavlodar state pedagogical institute,
140006, Pavlodar, Mira Street, 60, Kazakhstan
A.M. Zakal
University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)
Abstract
The analysis of professional competence formation problem consisting in justification of
methodical conditions of formation professional competences at students in the course of their
professional training in College is provided in research. The structure is theoretically proved
and almost developed, the contents, criteria and levels professional competences at students
are defined. Efficiency of the revealed methodical conditions of professional training providing
formation professional to competence at students is proved. The methodical model of student’s
professional competence formation is theoretically proved and almost developed. Efficiency of
student’s professional competence formation methodical model in the course of professional
training is methodologically proved and experimentally checked.
Keywords: professional competences, students, methodical conditions, professional
competence of students, methodical conditions of formation professional competences.
1. Introduction:
Acceleration of society development rates, expansion of a social choice opportunities,
introduction of modern information technologies puts a problem of essential changes in
an education system before science and practice. The increased requirements to quality
of education in the conditions of its restructuring and integration into world educational
space significantly change the level of social expectations in relation to productivity of all
complex of pedagogical sciences.
In a solution of the problem of education quality improvement the great value is
given to system of competent experts training.
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Professional competence of the teacher acts as criterion of high school professional
and pedagogical preparation today. Professional competence of the teacher – category
dynamic, developing, determined by a concrete historical situation in the conditions of
which professional activity is carried out.
Thus all researchers (Meirbekova G.P., Nyshanova S.T., Kerimbaeva B.T., Mukha-
medzhanov B.K., Daribaev Z.E., Iskakova P.K. [1], Chown, A. [2], Sakenov, D. Zh. [3],
Zhuina D.V. [4], Day, Ch. [5], Dornan, T., Carroll, C., Parboosingh, J. [6], Claire Kramsch
[7], Gifford, S. [8], Kathleen A. Brown-Rice and Susan Furr [9], Larionov, V.V. [10],
Lepper, M.R., Corpus, J.H., Iyengar, S.S. [11], Kristin Litster and Jillian Roberts [12],
Ishanov, P., Bekmambetova, Z. [13], Sundburg, L. [14], Schantz, E.A. [15], Wesley, D.C.
[16], Aviv Shachak, Sara Fine [17]) see the main complexity of teacher professional
competence formation of the teacher that is process multilevel.
During research a number of contradictions was revealed:
– between variety of conceptual approaches to the considered problem and an
insufficient readiness of teacher professional competence formation methodical conditions
of real educational process;
– between an urgent need of teacher professional competence formation and lack of
an evidence-based technique of its stage-by-stage development for educational process of
higher education institution;
– between the available potential of pedagogical disciplines in teacher professional
competence formation and insufficient real methodical practice of his realization.
Professional activity of the teacher is characterized by an insufficient readiness of
the status and professional duties. Out of researchers-teachers sight and methodologists
there was a problem of the methodical conditions promoting effective formation
professional competences at students as future teachers. Theoretical bases of such type of
preparation aren't developed, the methodical conditions providing efficiency of formation
professional to competence at students aren't revealed. Analysis of works of Meirbekova
G.P., Nyshanova S.T., Kerimbaeva B.T., Mukhamedzhanov B.K., Daribaev Z.E., Iskakova
P.K. [1], Chown, A. [2], Sakenov, D. Zh. [3], Zhuina D.V. [4], Day, Ch. [5], Dornan, T.,
Carroll, C., Parboosingh, J. [6], Claire Kramsch [7], Gifford, S. [8], Kathleen A. Brown-
Rice and Susan Furr [9], Larionov, V.V. [10], Lepper, M.R., Corpus, J.H., Iyengar, S.S. [11],
Kristin Litster and Jillian Roberts [12], Ishanov, P., Bekmambetova, Z. [13], Sundburg, L.
[14], Schantz, E.A. [15], Wesley, D.C. [16], Aviv Shachak, Sara Fine [17] etc. shows that
students professional competence formation becomes one of the priority directions of
modern education.
The analysis of scientific researches Meirbekova G.P., Nyshanova S.T., Kerimbaeva
B.T., Mukhamedzhanov B.K., Daribaev Z.E., Iskakova P.K. [1], Chown, A. [2], Sakenov,
D. Zh. [3], Zhuina D.V. [4], Day, Ch. [5], Dornan, T., Carroll, C., Parboosingh, J. [6], Claire
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Kramsch [7], Gifford, S. [8], Kathleen A. Brown-Rice and Susan Furr [9], Larionov, V.V.
[10], Lepper, M.R., Corpus, J.H., Iyengar, S.S. [11], Kristin Litster and Jillian Roberts
[12], Ishanov, P., Bekmambetova, Z. [13], Sundburg, L. [14], Schantz, E.A. [15], Wesley,
D.C. [16], Aviv Shachak, Sara Fine [17] shows that in higher educational institutions not
the sufficient level of the evidence-based organization of educational process and the
methodical conditions promoting formation of students professional competence though
in this direction some development is available, but their results aren't generalized and not
systematized. The allocated contradiction defines relevance of research of the problem
consisting in justification of methodical conditions of formation professional competences
at students.
Research objective: theoretical justification and practical realization of the
methodical conditions providing formation professional to competence at students. Need
of the professional competence formation at students which is a component of their
professional readiness is quite obvious now, but groundlessness of methodical conditions
of its formation in educational and educational process of pedagogical higher education
institution demands specification of the concept content. Professional competence of
students is the characteristic of the student personal qualities including professional
competences, providing effective and expedient implementation of professional activity in
various education, characterizing existence of organizing abilities, skills of the methodical
analysis and forecasting of results of professional activity, knowledge of the most effective
ways of its implementation.
2. Methods
Theoretical-methodological basis of research are the leading concepts of the
personality development; theory of the content of education; modern theories and concepts
of higher education; regulations on essence of complete pedagogical process; pedagogical
researches about the nature of the teacher’s work; researches on formation of the teacher’s
professionalism; researches on the teacher’s professional competence formation; ideas
of system, culturological, personal, activity, humanistic, axiological, ackmeological
approaches; idea of subject activity of the personality in the course of her activity;
development of technological approaches and variable technologies of education.
Research methods: for the solution of a goal were used: theoretical methods of
research: studying and the analysis of philosophical, sociological, pedagogical and
psychological literature on a research problem; conceptual terms framework; approaches
of scientists to the studied problem; synthesis, comparison, generalization, content
analysis; empirical methods of research: studying and synthesis of experience on higher
education system teacher’s professional competence formation; conversations with
students, teachers, teachers; questioning, supervision; method of synthesis of independent
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characteristics; studying of students creative activity products; methods of mathematical
and statistical data processing; modeling, pedagogical experiment.
3. Main part
Professional competence of the teacher as an educational phenomenon is the
leading characteristic of professionalism representing the integrative multilevel personal
education based on positive motives of profession choice, set of the system knowledge,
skills, practical experience, reflexive activity, dialogical culture which are expressed in
theoretical and practical readiness and ability of the teacher to the effective solution of
educational and educational tasks.
Professional competence of students is defined by the characteristic of personal
qualities of the student, as future teacher, including professional competences, providing
effective and expedient implementation of professional activity in various education,
existence of organizing abilities, skills of the pedagogical analysis and forecasting of
professional activity results, knowledge of the most effective ways of its implementation.
Professional competence at students through the solution of the professional tasks making
a basis of their professional activity is shown.
It is necessary to consider thus that professional competence – ability to performance
of main types of professional activity and professional tasks in the conditions of an education
organization. Therefore it is possible to include the following groups of competences in
structure of professional competences: all-professional, special and specialized.
The maintenance of professional competences of scientific approaches light to
definition of concept competence is formed under the influence of external and internal
factors:
– social order of the territorial market of educational work;
– requirements of the state educational standard to qualification of the expert
as base for which the standard and legal documents relating to administrative regula-
tion act;
– requirements of employers to professional qualification regarding abilities of the
graduate;
– making technologies (technological, methodical, organizational);
– activity of the teacher and student.
Each group of competences should be classified by formation levels which depend on
the planned educational result, a type of the activity which is carried out within discipline
(intuitive, stereotypic and reproductive, search and creative), training of students and their
personal characteristics. Concepts of cognitive activity are the basis for each of levels:
reproduction, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis, assessment.
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Basic level of professional competences formation are the minimum indicator and a
basis for a further increment and enrichment of professional competence. We will consider
productive level the following step to which the student in development of professional
competences – an average value comes. And as the high rate acts the creative level of
professional competences formation.
Levels of professional competences formation are caused by criteria of activity. So
criterion of a basic level are the reproductive activities for the set algorithm relying on
understanding and reproduction of professional actions. Criterion of productive level – we
will consider the partial and search activity assuming application of professional actions
in the analysis of a professional task. For creative level as criterion search work acts, thus
there is an assessment of the situation or a professional task and synthesis of possible
options of professional actions.
The activity having reproductive character differ in that at its realization students
use detailed instructions in which are specified: purpose of work, explanation (theory,
main characteristics), means and methods of achievement of a goal, realization order.
The activity having partial and search character differ in that at its realization
students don't use detailed instructions, they weren't given an order of necessary actions
performance and demand from students of independent selection of means and methods
of actions performance in instructive and reference books, etc.
The activity having search character are characterized by that students have to solve
a problem, new to them, relying on the theoretical knowledge which is available for them.
Thus, achievement of result at basic, productive and creative level has to be provided
due to understanding and acceptance by subjects of educational process the purposes of
activity, requirements to the intermediate and end results.
Professional competence at students is complex, professional and their personal
characteristic as future teachers, the readiness of students which is formed in the course of
professional training, showing effectively to solve professional problems and including: the
substantial block (knowledge of professional activity), the motivational block (existence of
interest and requirement to carry out professional activity), the activity block (professional
skills for the qualified performance of professional activity).
Methodical conditions of professional competence formation at students are:
– mastering in the course of subject and practical preparation the corresponding
theoretical and methodical knowledge, practical skills necessary for implementation of
professional activity;
– ensuring the maximum use of the theoretical, methodical and practical directions
opportunities of professional training according to logic of the educational movement of
students in the main forms of professional activity, innovative pedagogical technologies
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in disciplines of subject preparation, when passing a pedagogical practical work, in the
course of complex student teaching during formation of professional competence;
– substantial connection of active, innovative technologies of training in the course
of formation professional competences at students;
– formation at students of the valuable relation to methodical mastering future
profession.
Criteria and indicators of formation professional competences at students:
– informative (assimilation of knowledge, level of professional literacy, mastering
complex of concepts, categories, laws); motivational (qualities and properties of the
personality, tolerance, pedagogical readiness); practical (mastering the actions having
a professional focus, existence of abilities of the rational organization of work, use of
knowledge in non-standard situations, skills of design, the organization and implementation
of professional activity.
Levels of formation professional competences at students:
– the intuitive level which is characterized by absence of special theoretical
knowledge of features of pedagogical activity about ways of the solution of pedagogical
tasks, inability to prove in non-standard pedagogical situations, banality of actions,
misunderstanding of the teacher’s professional competence role for his successful activity
and professional formation and improvement;
– the stereotypic and reproductive level testifying to knowledge which allow
to define an orientation of pedagogical activity, own strategy of behavior in various
pedagogical situations and effective permission of pedagogical tasks;
– the search and creative level presented by strong knowledge, desire to solve
various pedagogical problems and to enter spontaneously arising or offered pedagogical
situations, the conscious relation to process of formation of professional competence of
the teacher as intrinsic characteristic of his professionalism.
Thus, at design of methodical Model students’ professional competence formation
in the course of vocational training allocation of the following blocks is necessary:
I. Organizational and methodical block: definition of the purposes and ways of
allocation of the professional actions demanding application professional competence,
designing of tasks, development of a task performance assessment criteria, preparation
of tutorials, the organization of students’ methodical groups and distribution of tasks.
II. Motivational block: presentation of tasks.
III. Activity and methodical: design by students of a pedagogical task solution and
representation of results, presentation, methodical assessment, examination of decisions.
IV. Criteria and indicators of formation professional competences at students.
V. Levels of formation professional competences at students.
VI. Methodical conditions of professional competence at students formation.
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VII. Dynamic block: dynamics professional competence formation at students on
the basis of realization of the laid-down methodical conditions reflects transition from
intuitive, stereotypic and reproductive levels to search creatively level of formation of
professional competence at students and assumes the system monitoring including the
specified levels and the developed criteria.
VIII. Technological block: the basis students’ professional competence formation
technology of the student of educational process of higher education institution was
made:
– educational technologies with an orientation on development of the personality’s
creative quality: integrative technologies, social and educational technologies, technologies
student’s subject social activity education;
– pedagogical technologies on the basis of humane and personal orientation of
pedagogical process;
– technologies on the basis of activation and an intensification of students’ activity
(active methods of training): problem training (partial and search method, technology
of educational research, research games), technologies of design training, interactive
technologies (technology of carrying out discussions, debates);
– game technologies: pedagogical games, role-playing and business games;
– technologies of the individualized training: design method;
– technologies of integration in education: integrative forms of education (seminar
practical work, lecture practical work, lecture dialogue).
Thus, the organization of students’ professional competence formation process
assumes development of methodical Model of student’s professional competence formation
of students reflecting necessary personal and professional qualities of the student.
The methodical Model of formation professional competences at students represents
the complete, interconnected process in which all making blocks and components are
directed on achievement of an ultimate goal – formation of professional competence at
students (fig. 1).
The explanation to figure 1. Methodical Model of professional competences
formation at students:
I. Organizational and methodical block: definition of the purposes and ways of
allocation of the professional actions demanding application professional competence,
designing of tasks, of task performance assessment criteria development, preparation of
tutorials, the organization of students’ methodical groups and distribution of tasks.
II. Motivational block: presentation of tasks.
III. Activity and methodical: design by students of a pedagogical task solution and
representation of results, presentation, methodical assessment, examination of decisions.
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Figure 1. Methodical Model of professional competences formation at students
IV. Criteria and indicators of formation professional competences of students:
informative (assimilation of knowledge, level of professional literacy, mastering complex
of concepts, categories, laws); motivational (qualities and properties of the personality,
tolerance, pedagogical readiness); practical (mastering the actions having a professional
focus, existence of work rational organization abilities, use of knowledge in non-standard
situations, skills of design, the organization and implementation of professional activity.
V. Levels of formation professional competences at students: the intuitive level
which is characterized by absence of special theoretical knowledge of pedagogical
activity features about ways of pedagogical tasks solution, inability to prove in non-
standard pedagogical situations, banality of actions, misunderstanding of a role of
teacher’s professional competence for his successful activity and professional formation
and improvement;
– the stereotypic and reproductive level testifying to knowledge which allow
to define an orientation of pedagogical activity, own strategy of behavior in various
pedagogical situations and effective permission of pedagogical tasks;
– the search and creative level presented by strong knowledge, desire to solve
various pedagogical problems and to enter spontaneously arising or offered pedagogical
situations, the conscious relation to process of teacher’s professional competence formation
as intrinsic characteristic of his professionalism.
VI. Methodical conditions of students’ professional competence formation:
mastering in the course of subject and practical preparation the corresponding theoretical
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and methodical knowledge, practical skills necessary for implementation of professional
activity;
– ensuring the maximum use of the theoretical, methodical and practical directions
opportunities of professional training according to logic of the student’ educational
movement in the main forms of professional activity, innovative pedagogical technologies
in disciplines of subject preparation, when passing a pedagogical practical work, in the
course of complex student teaching during the professional competence formation;
– substantial connection of active, innovative technologies of training in the course
of students’ professional competences formation;
– formation at students of the valuable relation to methodical mastering future
profession.
VII. Dynamic block: dynamics of students’ professional competence formation
on the basis of realization of the laid-down methodical conditions reflects transition
from intuitive, stereotypic and reproductive levels to search creatively level of students’
professional competence formation and assumes the system monitoring including the
specified levels and the developed criteria.
VIII. Technological block: the basis of students’ professional competence formation
technology of higher education institution educational process was made:
– educational technologies with an orientation on development of the personality’s
creative quality: integrative technologies, social and educational technologies, technologies
student’s subject social activity education;
– pedagogical technologies on the basis of humane and personal orientation of
pedagogical process;
– technologies on the basis of activation and an intensification of students’ activity
(active methods of training): problem training (partial and search method, technology
of educational research, research games), technologies of design training, interactive
technologies (technology of carrying out discussions, debates);
– game technologies: pedagogical games, role-playing and business games;
– technologies of the individualized training: design method;
– technologies of integration in education: integrative forms of education (seminar
practical work, lecture practical work, lecture dialogue).
Pedagogical experiment consisted in realization of the developed methodical
conditions of students’ professional competence formation put in methodical Model of
students’ professional competences formation in the course of professional training and
check of their efficiency. Dynamics of students’ professional competence development
of control and experimental groups for the entire period of training was traced. Research
took place at faculties of higher education institution. Students of pedagogical specialties
(75 students) took part in it.
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The technology of students’ professional competences formation level determination
results which is carried out with use of the ball monitoring system allowed to reveal a wide
tendency of students’ professional competence formation level to what results of research
in experimental and control groups before experiment in figure 2 testify. Diagnostics of
students’ professional competence formation levels.
Figure 2. Diagnostics of students professional competence formation levels.
Thus, in experimental groups the number of students with the high level of
professional competence formation after experiment increased by 43', number of the
students who reached the average level – for 1', the number of the students having low
level – decreased by 44'.
Results in control groups testify to increase in number of students with the high
level of professional competence formation at 2', average level – for 2', reduction of
formation low level by 4'.
The received indicators testify to high efficiency of the offered methodical Model
of students’ professional competences formation.
Thus, the conducted research proved what exactly realization of the allocated
methodical conditions and application of the developed methodical Model of students’
professional competences formation influenced change of experimental groups students’
professional competences formation levels.
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4. Conclusions and recommendations
The developed methodical model of students’ professional competence formation
is recommended for practical application in higher education institutions. Thus students’
professional competence formation of educational process of higher education institution
on the basis of the presented methodical model assumes the following staging: the first
stage – an adaptation and reproductive, second stage – an active and activity, third
stage – creative and converting. Methodological approaches (personal, activity, system,
axiological, ackmeological, culturological) and the principles necessary for successful
students’ professional competence formation are the basis for the developed methodical
model: principle of a humanization and democratization of educational process; principle
of a social and valuable orientation of teacher’s activity, interrelation of sociocultural and
educational values, correlation of social and personal values; the principle of a continuity
of professional education in modern sociocultural space; the principle of variability
assuming creation of conditions for individual-based training; the principle of a support
on the leading achievements of science and technology, integration of traditional and
innovative values.
As a result of students’ professional competence formation process studying
of educational process of higher education institution we came to a conclusion about
insufficient efficiency of traditional forms and methods of students’ professional
competence formation that is caused: frontal nature of pedagogical preparation; weak
introduction of fundamental achievements of pedagogical science in real pedagogical
process; insufficiently created scientific-theoretical base of competence-based education;
lack of a consensus about essence and structure of teacher’s professional competence;
unsystematic character of teacher’s professional competence formation and lack of all
subject matters (especially pedagogical cycle) teachers’ efforts coordination development
the analyzed phenomenon. Skilled and experimental work on higher education institution
educational process students’ professional competence included three stages: stating,
forming and control. The stating experiment made at the beginning of our skilled and
experimental work including such methods of pedagogical research as supervision,
questioning, conversation, studying and the analysis of students’ activity products revealed
the low level of students’ professional competence formation higher education institution
which is followed thus by awareness of need of students’ professional competence
formation and readiness professional pedagogically to self-improvement.
The used research methods including supervision, questioning, conversations
the analysis of professional motivation allowed to reveal a number of the considerable
shortcomings interfering effective formation of students’ professional competence of higher
education isttitution educational process. The specified shortcomings and difficulties are
presented by the following groups: basic difficulties (are characterized by uncertainty
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166
in themselves, lack of an initiative, a categoriality of judgments, rejection of other point
of view, primary external motivation of professional activity); substantial difficulties
(superficial ideas of teacher’s professional competence essence, low level of the general
culture, communicative culture); operational difficulties (low level of communicative
abilities, inability to work with educational and scientific literature; difficulties when
performing educational tasks); reflexive difficulties (lack of an objective self-assessment
and reflection of own activity).
The established interrelation of forms and methods of future teachers training of
the disciplines provided by the standard, with simultaneous formation of professional
competence separate components can be recommended as means of increase of higher
education institution pedagogical process efficiency.
Reasonable means of students’ professional competence formation of pedagogical
higher education institution can in the long term will change and will be added.
Reasonable criteria, indicators and levels of pedagogical higher education institution
students’ professional competence formation can define innovative development of the
higher school.
During research methodical conditions of students’ professional competence
formation in the course of their professional training are proved.
The structure is developed, the contents, criteria and levels professional competences
at students are defined.
Efficiency of the developed methodical Model of students’ professional competence
formation and methodical conditions of professional training put in it providing formation
professional to competence at students is checked and proved.
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Behav. Sci., 18: 103 – 114.
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system. Theory and practice of education in the modern world, 1: 383-386.
16. Wesley, D.C., 1998. Eleven ways to be a great teacher. Educational leadership, 55(5):
80-81.
17. Aviv Shachak, Sara Fine, 2008. The Effect of training on biologists acceptance of
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АВТОРЛАРҒА АРНАЛҒАН ПРАВИЛА
ЕРЕЖЕ ДЛЯ АВТОРОВ
1. Жұрналға педагогика ғылымдарының барлық салалары бойынша 2 данамен компьютерде
терілген, бір жарым жоларалық жиілікпен беттің бір жағына барлық шетінен 3 см орын қалдырып
басылған мақалалардың колжазбалары жəне «OpenOffice.org 3.0 Writer үшін» мəтін редакторындағы
толық материалдарының дискеті қабылданады (кегль –12 пункт, гарнитура – Times New Roman/KZ
Times New Roman).
2. Мақалаға барлық авторлардың қолы қойылады. Аңдатпаны, əдебиеттерді, кестелер мен
суреттерді қоса есептегенде қолжазбаның жалпы көлемі 8–10 беттен аспауы керек.
3. Ғылыми дəрежелері жоқ авторлардың мақалалары ғылым докторының не ғылым
кандидатының пікірімен бірге берілуі керек.
4. Мақалалар төмендегі ерекше талаптарды қатаң сақтауды қажет етеді:
– ОƏК – ондық əмбебап кестесі бойынша;
– мақаланың аты: кегль – 14, гарнитура Times New Roman (орыс, ағылшын жəне неміс
тілдеріндегі мəтін үшін), KZ Times New Roman (қазақ тілі үшін тақырыптың аты ерекше жазу
арқылы, тақырып аты ортасында болуы керек;
– мақаланың атауы, автордың ата тегі, авторлар туралы мəлімет, мақаланың аңдатпасы жəне
кілтті сөздер қазақ, орыс жəне ағылшын тілдерде беріледі;
– автор(лар)дың аты-жөн(дер)і, мекеменің толық аты: кегль – 12, гарнитура Arial (орыс
ағылшын жəне неміс тілінде), KZ Arial (қазақша мəтіндерге), азат жол ортасында болуы керек;
– Аңдатпа: кегль – 12 пункт, гарнитура Times New Roman / KZ Times New Roman қазақ жəне
ағылшын тілдерінде (ағылшынша жəне немісше мəтіндер үшін), орыс жəне ағылшын тілдерінде
(қазақша мəтіндер үшін), қазақ жəне орыс тілдерінде (ағылшынша мəтіндер үшін);
– мақала мəтіні: кегль – 12 пункті, гарнитура Times New Roman (орысша, ағылшыншa жəне
немісше мəтіндер үшін), KZ Times New Roman (қазақша мəтіндер үшін), бip жарым жоларалық ин-
тервал;
– қолданылған əдебиеттер тізімі (сілтеме мен ескертулер қолжазбадағы нөмірлерімен жəне
квадрат жақшада беріледі) əдебиеттер тізімі МемСТ 7.1–84 талаптарына сəйкес жасалуы керек.
Мысалы:
Əдебиеттер:
1. Автор. Мақаланың аты. // Жұрнал аты. Басылған жылы. Том (мысалы, 26-том) – нөмipi
(мысалы, №3) – беттері (мысалы, 34-бет немесе 15–24 беттер).
2. Андреева С.А. Кітаптың аты. Басылған жылы (Мысалы, – М:) Баспа (мысалы, Ғылым)
басылған жылы. Кітаптың жалпы бет саны (мысалы, 239 б.) немесе нақты беті (мысалы, 67-б.)
3. Петров И.И. Диссертация аты: пед. ғыл-ның канд. дисс. – М: Институттың аты, жылы. Бет
саны.
4. С. Christopoulos, The transmission – Line Modelling (ТМЬ) Metod, Piscataway, NJ: 1ЕЕЕ Press,
1995.
Бөлек бетте автор жөнінде (қағазға басылған жəне электронды түрде) мəліметтер беріледі:
– аты-жөні толығымен, ғылыми дəрежесі мен ғылыми атағы, жұмыс орны, («Біздің авторла-
рымыз» бөлімінде жариялау үшін) мақала тілінде терілуі керек;
– толық пошталық мекенжайлары, қызмет жəне үй телефондары, Е-mail (редакцияның автор-
лармен байланыс жасауы үшін, жарияланбайды);
4. Иллюстрациялар. Суреттер мен сурет жазбалары бөлек беріледі жəне мақала мəтініне
енгізілмейді. Əр суреттің артында оның нөмipi, аты, автордың тегі, мақаланың аты болуы керек.
3–4
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Дискетте суреттер мен иллюстрациялардың TIF немесе JPG (jepeg форматында кемінде файл 600 dpi
рұқсатымен беріледі (файлдар атаулары «1-сурет», «2-сурет», «3-сурет» жəне т.б.).
5. Математикалық формулалар MicrosoftWord Equation 3 немесе MathType формуласы сияқты
(əр формула – бip объект) тіркелyi керек. Сілтемелері бар формулалар ғана нөмірленеді.
6. Автор мақалаға қатысты шектеулерді ескереді, сондай-ақ мақала мазмұны үшін жауап
береді.
7. Редакция əдеби стильдік өңдеумен айналыспайды. Қолжазба мен дискеттер қайтарылмайды.
Талапқа сай келмейтін мақалалар басуға жіберілмейді жəне авторға қайтарылады.
8. Материалдар, қолжазба жəне диск мына мекенжайға жiбepiлyi керек:
140002, Қазақстан Республикасы, Павлодар қаласы, Мир көшесі, 60 үй.
Павлодар мемлекеттік педагогикалық институты
Ғылыми-баспа орталығы
Тел. (7182) 32–48–04
факс: (7182) 34–42–22
е-mail [email protected]
РГП на ПХВ «Павлодарский государственный педагогический институт» МОН РК
БИН 040340005741
РНН 451500220232
ИИК КZ109260501163654000
АО «Казкоммерцбанк»
БИК KZKOKZKX
ОКПО 40200973
КБЕ 16
РГП на ПХВ «Павлодарский государственный педагогический институт» МОН РК
БИН 040340005741
РНН 451500220232
ИИК КZ609650000061536309
АО «Альянсбанк»
БИК IRTYKZKA
ОКПО 40200973
КБЕ 16
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АВТОРЛАРҒА АРНАЛҒАН ПРАВИЛА
ЕРЕЖЕ ДЛЯ АВТОРОВ
1. В журнал принимаются рукописи статей по всем направлениям педагогических наук в двух
экземплярах, набранные на компьютере, напечатанные на одной стороне листа с полуторным меж-
строчным интервалом, с полями 3 см со всех сторон листа, и дискета со всеми материалами в тек-
стовом редакторе «OpenOffice.org 3.0 Writer» (кегль – 12 пунктов, гарнитура – Times New Roman /
KZ Times New Roman).
2. Статья подписывается всеми авторами. Общий объем рукописи, включая аннотацию, ли-
тературу, таблицы и рисунки, не должен превышать 8–10 страниц. Минимальный объем рукописи
должен составлять 5–6 стр.
3. Статья должна сопровождаться рецензией доктора или кандидата наук для авторов, не име-
ющих ученой степени.
4. Статьи должны быть оформлены в строгом соответствии со следующими правилами:
– УДК по таблицам универсальной десятичной классификации;
– название статьи: кегль – 14 пунктов, гарнитура – Times New Roman Cyr (для русских, ан-
глийских и немецких текстов), KZ Times New Roman (для казахских текстов), абзац центрованный;
– в сведениях об авторах следует указывать фамилию, имя, отчество полностью, полное на-
звание учреждения, кафедры, звание, должность: кегль – 12 пунктов, гарнитура – Arial (для русских,
английских и немецких текстов), KZ Arial (для казахских текстов), абзац центрованный;
– аннотация статьи и ключевые слова: кегль – 12 пунктов, гарнитура – Times New Roman /KZ
Times New Roman;
– название статьи, фамилия автора, сведения о нем, аннотация статьи и ключевые слова пре-
доставляются на казахском, русском и английском языках;
– текст статьи; кегль – 12 пунктов, гарнитура – Times New Roman (для русских, английских
и немецких текстов), KZ Times New Roman (для казахских текстов), полуторный межстрочный ин-
тервал;
– таблицы и схемы должны сопровождаться названиями и нумерацией;
– литература в литературных источниках печатается по мере употребления в рукописи;
– изречения авторов должны сопровождаться сносками [1, 38], где 38 – страница, источник 1;
количество сносок должно соответствовать количеству литературных источников;
– список использованной литературы (ссылки и примечания в рукописи обозначаются сквоз-
ной нумерацией и заключаются в квадратные скобки). Список литературы должен быть оформлен в
соответствии с ГОСТ 7.1–84. Например:
Список литературы
1. Автор. Название статьи // Название журнала. Год издания. Том (например, Т. 26). – номер
(например, №3). – страница (например, С. 34 или С. 15–24).
2. Андреева С.А. Название книги. Место издания (например, – М.:) Издательство (например,
Наука,) год издания. Общее число страниц в книге (например, 239 с.) или конкретная страница (на-
пример, С. 67.)
3. Петров И.И. Название диссертации: дис. канд. пед. наук. М.: Название института, год. Чис-
ло страниц.
4. С.Christopoulos, The transmission Line Modelling (TML) Metod, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press,
1995.
На отдельной странице (в бумажном и электронном варианте) приводятся сведения об авторе:
– Ф.И.О. полностью, ученая степень и ученое звание, место работы, набранные на языке
статьи;
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– полные почтовые адреса, номера служебного и домашнего телефонов, Е-mail (для связи ре-
дакции с авторами, не публикуются);
4. Иллюстрации. Перечень рисунков и подрисуночные надписи к ним представляют отдельно
и в общий текст статьи не включают. На обратной стороне каждого рисунка следует указать его но-
мер, название рисунка, фамилию автора, название статьи. На дискете рисунки и иллюстрации в фор-
мате TIF или JPG с разрешением не менее 600 dpi (файлы с названием «Рис. 1», «Рис. 2», «Рис. 3»
и т.д.).
5. Математические формулы должны быть набраны как MicrosoftWord Equation 3 или
MathType (каждая формула – один объект). Нумеровать следует лишь те формулы, на которые име-
ются ссылки.
6. Автор просматривает и визирует гранки статьи и несет ответственность за содержание ста-
тьи.
7. Редакция не занимается литературной и стилистической обработкой статьи. Рукописи и ди-
ски не возвращаются. Статьи, оформленные с нарушением требований, к публикации не принима-
ются и возвращаются авторам.
8. Рукопись и диск с материалами следует направлять по адресу:
140002, Республика Казахстан, г. Павлодар, ул. Мира, 60
Павлодарский государственный педагогический институт
Научно-издательский центр.
Тел. (7182) 32–48–04
факс: (7182) 34–42–22
е-mail [email protected]
РГП на ПХВ «Павлодарский государственный педагогический институт» МОН РК
БИН 040340005741
РНН 451500220232
ИИК КZ109260501163654000
АО «Казкоммерцбанк»
БИК KZKOKZKX
ОКПО 40200973
КБЕ 16
РГП на ПХВ «Павлодарский государственный педагогический институт» МОН РК
БИН 040340005741
РНН 451500220232
ИИК КZ609650000061536309
АО «Альянсбанк»
БИК IRTYKZKA
ОКПО 40200973
КБЕ 16
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
172
1. Объем статьи – не менее 3500–7000 слов.
2. К публикации обычно принимаются только следующие виды статей:
• Обзоры. Возможность опубликования обзоров рассматривается только в том случае, если
базой исследования послужили все важные источники, обзор которых позволяет составить всеобъ-
емлющую и исчерпывающую картину изученности вопроса на данный момент.
• Материалы с описанием различных методик, программного обеспечения, баз данных или
других видов программ.
• Качественные исследования/анализ.
3. В случае, если представленное исследование дублирует
либо очень похоже на уже опу-
бликованную/ые работу/ы, авторы должны обеспечить серьезное научное обоснование представ-
ленной работы, а также дать конкретные ссылки на использованную литературу. Статьи, дублирую-
щие или являющиеся производной ранее опубликованных работ, скорее всего, не будут приняты к
публикации, особенно, если авторы не предоставят убедительных на то оснований.
4. Все рисунки/графики
в статье должны быть оригинальными и не могут быть ранее опу-
бликованы в каком-либо другом издании.
5. Структура статьи
Статья должна иметь следующую структуру:
Первая часть
Обязательные части в следующем порядке:
• Титульный лист: Название, авторы и наименование организации
• Аннотация
• Введение
Центральная
часть
Следующие элементы могут быть переименованы и следовать в произвольном
порядке:
• Материалы и методы
• Результаты
• Обсуждение
• Заключение
Заключитель-
ная часть
Обязательные части в следующем порядке:
• Благодарность
• Список использованной литературы
• Описание к графикам (если необходимо)
Дополни-
тельно
• Описание к графикам/ диаграммам следует указывать в тексте под графиками.
• Таблицы следует вставлять в текст сразу после упоминания о них. Ссылки, ле-
генда и другой текст размещаются под таблицей.
• Дополнительные материалы загружаются отдельными файлами.
Название
Укажите название целиком и
Короткое название.
АВТОРЛАРҒА АРНАЛҒАН ЖАҢА НОВЫЕ ПРАВИЛА ДЛЯ АВТОРОВ
ЕРЕЖЕ (SCOPUS ТАЛАБЫ БОЙЫНША) (ПО ТРЕБОВАНИЯМ SCOPUS)
3–4
, 2016 ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ ВЕСТНИК КАЗАХСТАНА
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Название
Длина
Guidelines
Пример
Полное
название
250
символов
Конкретное, четкое и
понятное для неспеци-
алистов
Impact of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Innate
Immunity: A Caenorhabditis elegans Model
Solar Drinking Water Disinfection (SODIS) to
Reduce Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Bolivia:
A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial
Короткое
название
50
символов
Коротко сформулируй-
те название
Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Innate Immunity
SODIS and Childhood Diarrhoea
По возможности избегайте профессиональных аббревиатур.
Список авторов
Указываются все специалисты, принимавшие участие в исследовании и принимавшие уча-
стие в написании статьи.
Все, кто принимал участие, но не попадает под категорию «Автор», может упоминаться в раз-
деле «Благодарности».
Имена авторов и контрибьютеров
На титульной странице укажите имена авторов в следующем порядке:
• Имя; • Отчество; • Фамилия.
Укажите название организации каждого из авторов (факультет, университет или др. организа-
ция), ее адрес (город, область, страна).
6. Аннотация:
Описание основной цели исследования;
Краткое описание методологии;
Обобщение наиболее важных результатов исследования и их значение;
Максимальный объем аннотации – 300 слов.
7. Введение:
Описать контекст Вашего исследования, чтобы помочь обычному читателю в этой области
понять цель и значение изучения.
Определить проблему исследования, гипотезу и обосновать важность работы: на какие кон-
кретно вопросы ваше исследование пытается дать ответ?
Включить краткий обзор ключевых источников (обязательно источники на различные типы
работ, ссылки на первоисточники, использовать в том числе англоязычную литературу).
Обратить внимание на существующие споры или разногласия в изучаемой области. Бэкгра-
унд статьи должен быть избирательным, нужно концентрироваться только на тех исследованиях, ко-
торые напрямую относятся к вашему исследованию (или повлияли на него).
Если у вас несколько тезисов от нескольких авторов, которые должны быть упомянуты, сде-
лайте таблицу с указанием основных принципов каждой теории. Так читатель может пробежать ее
взглядом, если эта часть не представляет для него интереса.
Нужно разделять обзор и анализ государственных стандартов и официальных документов и
обзор литературы. Возможно, использование этих документов помогает ответить на вопросы, ко-
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
174
торые вас интересуют в работе (в таком случае эти вопросы нужно подчеркнуть), но обзор должен
быть сконцентрирован на существующих идеях и теориях, от которых вы отталкиваетесь.
Введение завершается кратким изложением общей цели работы и комментарием о том, была
ли достигнута эта цель.

8. В методологии/методы необходимо ответить на следующие вопросы:
1) Как был выбран определенный инструментарий, как было организовано исследование?
2) Почему выбран определенный метод, как определялся объект исследования?
3) Пошагово опишите порядок процедуры.
4) Какие изменения в оригинальном методе (если таковые имеются) было необходимо сде-
лать в вашем исследовании? Почему эта адаптация была необходима?
Главное требование к секции методология – методология должна настолько подробно описы-
вать исследование, чтобы другой исследователь, ознакомившись с разделом, смог повторить опыт/
действия.
9. В разделе «Результаты»:
Необходимо ответить на вопрос: что именно вы выяснили из результатов исследования?
Рекомендуется представить результаты в таблице и дать к ней пояснения. Таблица должна
быть понятна с первого взгляда, так как многие читатели знакомятся с секцией результатов, пропу-
ская методологию: если результаты не кажутся интересными, зачем выяснять, как они были полу-
чены.
10. Обсуждение
В разделе «Обсуждение» сфокусируйтесь на вопросе: какие выводы из результатов не кажут-
ся очевидными?
В «Обсуждении» всегда следует концентрироваться на интерпретации результатов и их при-
менениях.
Здесь же можно описать возможные направления дальнейших исследований и границы ис-
следования. Но не нужно делать эти пункты (про дальнейшие исследования и про границы приме-
нения результатов исследования) центральными в обсуждении.
11. Заключение
В разделе описываются результаты исследования, их интерпретация и выводы. Авторы долж-
ны объяснить, как результаты связаны с основной выдвигаемой ими гипотезой, и дать краткое опи-
сание значимости выводов, в особенности по отношению к предыдущим исследованиям, а также
важность для дальнейших исследований.
12. Сопроводительное письмо
(не должно копировать аннотацию!)
Для сопроводительного письма нужно кратко дать информацию по следующим пунктам:
– подвести итог, почему данная работа является ценным дополнением к уже существующей
научной литературе в Вашей сфере;
– описать то, как Ваше исследование относится к ранее опубликованным работам (на каких
исследованиях основывается/с кем Вы, возможно, ведете полемику);
– указать тип статьи, которую Вы направляете (например, научно-исследовательская статья,
систематический обзор, мета-анализ, клинические испытания);
3–4
, 2016 ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ ВЕСТНИК КАЗАХСТАНА
175
– подтвердить, что статья не опубликована и не находится на рассмотрении в каком-либо дру-
гом издании.

Требования к качеству английского языка
Одним из важнейших факторов, влияющих на результат рецензирования, является качество
языка статьи. Язык написания статьи должен соответствовать стандартам академического письма.
Чаще всего требуется оксфордский английский.
Обращаем Ваше внимание на то, что перевод статьи профессиональным переводчиком не
исключает необходимости вычитки статьи носителем языка. Переводчик может обеспечить хоро-
ший уровень языка без грамматических и терминологических ошибок (второе – при активном со-
действии автора и предоставлении им глоссария). Вычитка носителем языка, разбирающимся в Ва-
шей тематике, позволит сделать текст доступным для восприятия широкой аудитории читателей, из-
бежать стилистических ошибок, перегруженных предложений и так называемого «русского англий-
ского».
Для редактора важно, чтобы статья была написана понятным языком, чтобы читатели не от-
влекались от содержания статьи на все то, что затрудняет восприятие информации: грамматические,
стилистические ошибки, нетипичные конструкции предложений и так далее.
Кроме того, качество языка статьи сможет косвенно повлиять на увеличение количества ссы-
лок на опубликованную статью*.
* Использована инструкция ASPIRANS.COM
ҚАЗАҚСТАН ПЕДАГОГИКАЛЫҚ ХАБАРШЫСЫ 3–4, 2016
176
Компьютерде терген: С. Пилипенко
Корректорлар: Р. Кайсаринова, С. Абдуалиева
Теруге 28.11.2016 ж. жіберілді. Басуға 15.12.2016 ж. қол қойылды.
Форматы 70×100 1/16. Кітап-журнал қағазы.
Көлемі 8,5 шартты б.т. Таралымы 300 дана.
Бағасы келісім бойынша.
Тапсырыс №1035
Компьютерная верстка: С. Пилипенко
Корректоры: Р. Кайсаринова, С. Абдуалиева
Сдано в набор 28.11.2016

г. Подписано в печать 15.12.2016 г.
Формат 70×100 1/16. Бумага книжно-журнальная.
Объем 8,5 уч.-изд. л. Тираж 300 экз.
Цена договорная.
Заказ №1035
Научно-издательский центр
Павлодарского государственного педагогического института
140002, г. Павлодар, ул. Мира, 60.
E-mail: [email protected]

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